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Article

Typological Shift in Bilinguals’ L1: Word Order and Case Marking in Two Varieties of Child Quechua

1
Language Department, Roxbury Community College, Boston, MA 02120, USA
2
Language Program, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR 97801, USA
3
Department of Linguistics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Languages 2021, 6(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6010042
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indigenous Languages of the Americas)
We compare speech production and find morphosyntactic change among children and adolescents speaking two closely related varieties of Quechua in Cuzco, Peru, and Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Quechua languages traditionally employ Object-Verb (OV) word order in main clauses, but robust case marking permits other orders, especially to focalize new information through constituent fronting. In Chuquisaca, but not Cuzco, we find that schoolchildren often omit the accusative suffix -ta from direct objects while retaining a prosodic trace of -ta. In other varieties, loss of accusative marking is associated with a shift towards Verb-Object (VO) word order, as in Spanish. However, we find that Chuquisaqueños use more canonical OV and possessor-possessed order in declarative sentences than do Cuzqueños, who employ a wide range of word orders at the sentence level and deviate from the possessor-possessed norm for Quechua noun phrases. Our finding of more rigid word order in Chuquisaca highlights the complex factors contributing to typological shift in word order and morphology: Omission of case morphology places a greater burden on word order to identify grammatical roles. Further, we find that Chuquisaqueño schoolchildren alone have begun to use huk, “one,” to mark indefiniteness, perhaps to replace determiner-like functions ascribed to -ta and to obsolescent markers such as evidentials. View Full-Text
Keywords: Quechua; bilingualism; morpho-syntactic change; word order typology; first language acquisition; language shift; endangered languages; convergence Quechua; bilingualism; morpho-syntactic change; word order typology; first language acquisition; language shift; endangered languages; convergence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kalt, S.E.; Geary, J.A. Typological Shift in Bilinguals’ L1: Word Order and Case Marking in Two Varieties of Child Quechua. Languages 2021, 6, 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6010042

AMA Style

Kalt SE, Geary JA. Typological Shift in Bilinguals’ L1: Word Order and Case Marking in Two Varieties of Child Quechua. Languages. 2021; 6(1):42. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6010042

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kalt, Susan E., and Jonathan A. Geary. 2021. "Typological Shift in Bilinguals’ L1: Word Order and Case Marking in Two Varieties of Child Quechua" Languages 6, no. 1: 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6010042

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