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The Impact of Volute Aspect Ratio on the Performance of a Mixed Flow Turbine

Turbocharger Research Institute, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK
BorgWarner Turbo Systems, Bradford BD4 6SE, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Aerospace 2017, 4(4), 56;
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Aerospace)
PDF [11367 KB, uploaded 23 November 2017]


Current trends in the automotive industry towards engine downsizing mean turbocharging now plays a vital role in engine performance. A turbocharger increases charge air density using a turbine to extract waste energy from the exhaust gas to drive a compressor. Most turbocharger applications employ a radial inflow turbine. However, mixed flow turbines can offer non-zero blade angles, reducing leading edge (LE) separation at low velocity ratios. The current paper investigates the performance of a mixed flow turbine with three different volute aspect ratio (AR) designs (AR = 0.5, 1 and 2). With constant A/r (ratio of volute area to centroid radius), the AR = 0.5 volute design produced a 4.3% increase in cycle averaged mass flow parameter (MFP) compared to the AR = 2 design. For the purpose of performance comparison, it was necessary to manipulate the volute A/r’s to ensure constant MFP for aerodynamic similarity. With the volute A/r’s manipulated to ensure constant MFP for aerodynamic similarity, the maximum variation of cycle averaged normalized efficiency measured between the designs was 1.47%. Purely in the rotor region, the variation in normalized cycle averaged efficiency was 1%. The smallest tested volute aspect ratio showed a significant increase in volute loss while the ARs of 1 and 2 showed similar levels of loss. The smallest AR volute showed significant secondary flow development in the volute. The resulting variation in LE incidence was found to vary as a result. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid dynamics; mixed flow turbine; secondary flows; dean vortices; computational fluid dynamics fluid dynamics; mixed flow turbine; secondary flows; dean vortices; computational fluid dynamics

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Lee, S.P.; Barrans, S.M.; Jupp, M.L.; Nickson, A.K. The Impact of Volute Aspect Ratio on the Performance of a Mixed Flow Turbine. Aerospace 2017, 4, 56.

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