Forest Resource Management and Its Climate-Change Mitigation Policies in Taiwan
2. Data Mining and Methodology
- Forest resources in Taiwan
- Inventory of GHG emissions from all sectors and carbon sequestration from the forestry sector
- Regulatory policies for mitigating GHG emissions from the forestry sector
3.1. Trend Analysis of Forest Rresources in Taiwan
- Broadleaf forests: 1470 thousand hectares (estimated) and 67% of forest area.
- Coniferous forests: 299 thousand hectares (estimated) and 14% of forest area.
- Mixed coniferous and broadleaf forests: 171 thousand hectares (estimated) and 8% of forest area.
- Bamboo forests: 113 thousand hectares (estimated) and 5% of forest area.
- Mixed bamboo forests: 115 thousand hectares (estimated) and 5% of forest area.
- Pending forests: 29 thousand hectares (estimated) and 1% of forest area.
- Broadleaf forests: 469.0 million metric tons (62.2%).
- Coniferous forests: 156.3 million metric tons (20.7%).
- Mixed coniferous and broadleaf forests: 103.5 million metric tons (13.7%).
- Bamboo forests: 14.6 million metric tons (1.9%).
- Mixed bamboo forests: 10.8 million metric tons (1.4%).
3.2. Trend Analysis of Carbon Sequestration in Taiwan’s Forestry Sector
- During the period 1990–2018, the change in the total carbon sequestration did not vary much (with the exception in 2009) ranging from 21.4 to 23.4 million metric tons. This stable situation was mainly due to the dynamic balance between increased sequestration from the annual growth of forest resources and decreased sequestration from falling and felling trees.
- Total carbon sequestration in 1990 was 23.4 million metric tons. By contrast, the value in 2018 dropped to 21.5 million metric tons, thus indicating an annually decline rate of 0.30%. Compared to the value (i.e., 21.9 million metric tons) in 2005 (base year), sequestration in 2018 was down by 1.88%.
- In recent years (2010–2018), biomass (i.e., wood) carbon sequestration indicated a slight increase from 20.4 million metric tons in 2010 to 20.7 million metric tons in 2018. This increase should be attributed to afforestation and forest management policies during this period. According to official statistics , forest land area increased from 2,101,719 hectares in 2010 to 2,197,090 hectares in 2018.
4.1. Forestry Act
- Carbon sequestration
- To increase carbon reserves in forest and its soils, the central government agency requests that the central land administrative authority classifies the undeveloped mountains and lands as forestland (Article 6).
- To maintain forest ecology and preserve biodiversity, a so-called “nature reserve” may be designated within a forest zone (Article 17-1).
- To encourage reforestation and award forest business by private individuals and/or organizations, the central government agency may provide free seedings, rewards, long-term low-interest loans, or other assistances and promotions. In addition, the competent agency will establish a reforestation fund for the above-mentioned issue (Article 47, Article 48, and Article 48-1).
- Carbon conservation
- To conserve the carbon pool, a forest protection area may be designated in the forest periphery. Furthermore, prescribed burns and ignitions will not be permitted in the forest and forest protection zones (Article 33 and Article 34).
- To prevent forest fire, the government agency will establish a forest fire squad and organize a volunteer forest fire squad as needed (Article 35).
- To eliminate or prevent biological hazards or disturbances in the forest, the forest owner shall be responsible for them (Article 38).
- Carbon substitution
- To increase the transfer of carbon from forest biomass to other wood products such as building materials and/or biomass fuels, the harvesting of national forest yields shall be carried out according to the annual logging plan (Article 15).
- To strengthen forest business, forestry practitioners may organize a forestry cooperative association based on the Cooperation Association Act (Article 19).
4.2. Greenhouse Gas Reduction and Management Act
- The relevant central government agencies will promote GHG reduction and climate-change adaptation through their actions, including
- Development of renewable energy and energy technology; i.e., the use of wood-based biomass energy.
- Reduction and management of GHG emissions from buildings; i.e., the use of woods.
- Waste recycling and use; i.e., the reuse of waste wood as fuels or materials.
- Forest resource management in the forest’s carbon sequestration.
- Educational propaganda in climate-change adaptation and GHG reduction.
- The central competent authority (i.e., EPA) will develop a “National Climate Change Action Guideline” and “Greenhouse Gas Reduction Action Plan” based on the nation’s economy, energy supplies, environments, international situation, and the assignment responsibilities by the relevant central government agencies [28,29].
- The “National Climate Change Action Guideline” will be reviewed and examined once every five years.
- The “Greenhouse Gas Reduction Action Plan” will contain regulatory items, including staged control goals, implementation timetables, implementation strategies, expected benefits, and an evaluation mechanism.
- According to the “Greenhouse Gas Reduction Action Plan”, the relevant central government agencies will include GHG emission targets, timetables, and economic incentive measures.
- The central competent authority (i.e., EPA) will implement the cap-and-trade scheme based on the UNFCCC and its agreements, or relevant international conventions in response to international GHG reduction requirements.
- After implementing GHG emission/sink accounting, verification, and registration as well as establishment of the regulations of allocation, offset, auction, sale, and allowance trading, the central competent authority in consultation with the central industrial competent authorities will implement the cap-and-trade scheme.
- Major GHG emission sources may procure emissions allowances from the GHG emission reduction projects (e.g., offset project), which have been validated and registered in the holding account.
- To reduce carbon footprint, the procurement of GHG reduction credits will give priority to domestic efforts.
5. Conclusions and Prospects
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Forest Type||Wood Density||Biomass Expansion Factor||Biomass Conversion and Expansion Factor||Ratio 2||Carbon Fraction||Annual Growth|
|Forest Type||Stock Volume (103 m3)|
|Mixed coniferous–broadleaf forest||57,581|
|Mixed coniferous–broadleaf forest||15,226|
|Mixed bamboo forest||8018|
|Forests maintaining forests||Biomass carbon sequestration||23,902||23,146||22,201||21,255||20,392||20,546||20,575||20,612||20,656|
|Biomass carbon emission||607||202||389||369||218||189||153||111||83|
|Other lands turned to forests||Biomass carbon sequestration||91||288||665||1032||1240||1068||1029||981||934|
|Total carbon sequestration 2||23,386||23,233||22,476||22,918||22,413||21,425||21,451||21,482||21,507|
|Sink by forestry sector||23,386||23,233||22,476||22,918||22,413||21,425||21,451||21,482||21,507|
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Tsai, W.-T. Forest Resource Management and Its Climate-Change Mitigation Policies in Taiwan. Climate 2021, 9, 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9010003
Tsai W-T. Forest Resource Management and Its Climate-Change Mitigation Policies in Taiwan. Climate. 2021; 9(1):3. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9010003Chicago/Turabian Style
Tsai, Wen-Tien. 2021. "Forest Resource Management and Its Climate-Change Mitigation Policies in Taiwan" Climate 9, no. 1: 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9010003