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Open AccessArticle

Long-Term Trend Analysis in Annual and Seasonal Precipitation, Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in the Southwest United States

1
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Agricultural Science Center at Farmington, P.O. Box 1018, Farmington, NM 87499, USA
2
Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Kansas State University, 1016 Seaton Hall 920 N. 17th St., Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
3
Leïdi Laboratory—Dynamics of Territories and Development, Université Gaston Berger, BP 234 Saint-Louis, Senegal
4
UFR S2ATA Sciences Agronomiques, de l’Aquaculture et des Technologies Alimentaires, Université Gaston Berger, BP 234 Saint-Louis, Senegal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Climate 2020, 8(12), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8120142
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 25 November 2020 / Accepted: 28 November 2020 / Published: 2 December 2020
The objective of this study is to perform trend analysis in the historic data sets of annual and crop season [May–September] precipitation and daily maximum and minimum temperatures across the southwest United States. Eighteen ground-based weather stations were considered across the southwest United States for a total period from 1902 to 2017. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall test method was used for the significance of the trend analysis and the Sen’s slope estimator was used to derive the long-term average rates of change in the parameters. The results showed a decreasing trend in annual precipitation at 44.4% of the stations with the Sen’s slopes varying from −1.35 to −0.02 mm/year while the other stations showed an increasing trend. Crop season total precipitation showed non-significant variation at most of the stations except two stations in Arizona. Seventy-five percent of the stations showed increasing trend in annual maximum temperature at the rates that varied from 0.6 to 3.1 °C per century. Air cooling varied from 0.2 to 1.0 °C per century with dominant warming phenomenon at the regional scale of the southwest United States. Average annual minimum temperature had increased at 69% of the stations at the rates that varied from 0.1 to 8 °C over the last century, while the annual temperature amplitude showed a decreasing trend at 63% of stations. Crop season maximum temperature had significant increasing trend at 68.8% of the stations at the rates varying from 0.7 to 3.5 °C per century, while the season minimum temperature had increased at 75% of the stations. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; crop growing season; precipitation; temperature; southwest United States climate change; crop growing season; precipitation; temperature; southwest United States
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MDPI and ACS Style

Djaman, K.; Koudahe, K.; Bodian, A.; Diop, L.; Ndiaye, P.M. Long-Term Trend Analysis in Annual and Seasonal Precipitation, Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in the Southwest United States. Climate 2020, 8, 142.

AMA Style

Djaman K, Koudahe K, Bodian A, Diop L, Ndiaye PM. Long-Term Trend Analysis in Annual and Seasonal Precipitation, Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in the Southwest United States. Climate. 2020; 8(12):142.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Djaman, Koffi; Koudahe, Komlan; Bodian, Ansoumana; Diop, Lamine; Ndiaye, Papa M. 2020. "Long-Term Trend Analysis in Annual and Seasonal Precipitation, Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in the Southwest United States" Climate 8, no. 12: 142.

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