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Solar Irradiance and Temperature Variability and Projected Trends Analysis in Burundi

Laboratory of Applied Hydrology, National Institute of Water, University of Abomey-Calavi, P.O. Box 2041 Calavi, Benin
Institute of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 613 Porto-Novo, Benin
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Climate 2019, 7(6), 83;
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
PDF [4294 KB, uploaded 12 June 2019]


This paper assessed the variability and projected trends of solar irradiance and temperature in the East of Burundi. Observed temperature from meteorological stations and the MERRA-2 data set provided by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center are used over the historical period 1976–2005. In addition, solar irradiance data provided by SoDa database were considered. Furthermore, projection data from eight Regional Climate Models were used over the periods 2026–2045 and 2066–2085. The variability analysis was performed using a standardized index. Projected trends and changes in the future climate were respectively detected through Mann-Kendall and t-tests. The findings over the historical period revealed increase temperature and decrease in solar irradiance over the last decades of the 20th century. At a monthly scale, the variability analysis showed that excesses in solar irradiance coincide with the dry season, which led to the conclusion that it may be a period of high production for solar energy. In the future climate, upward trends in temperature are expected over the two future periods, while no significant trends are forecasted in solar irradiance over the entire studied region. However, slight decreases and significant changes in solar irradiance have been detected over all regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Burundi; temperature; solar irradiance; variability; projected trends Burundi; temperature; solar irradiance; variability; projected trends

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Lawin, A.E.; Niyongendako, M.; Manirakiza, C. Solar Irradiance and Temperature Variability and Projected Trends Analysis in Burundi. Climate 2019, 7, 83.

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