Can a Symbolic Mega-Unit of Radiative Forcing (RF) Improve Understanding and Assessment of Global Warming and of Mitigation Methods Using Albedo Enhancement from Algae, Cloud, and Land (AEfACL)?
1.1. Two Paths Less Taken
1.2. Rationale for the Use of a Mega-Unit of RF
1.3. Rationale for Considering Cloud and Land Albedo Enhancement
1.4. Rationale for Albedo Enhancement—It Is the Heat
1.4.1. World Land Temperature Increase
1.4.2. Factors Illustrating the Heat Increase
- World CO2 emission reductions of 5% annually will not lower temperature for decades due to climate ‘inertia’  (Samset et al.).
- Tropical diseases such as Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever (the Aedes-borne viruses) will spread to typically temperate areas as they become warmer  (Ryan et al.).
- The globe has warmed by around +1.1 °C. Australia has warmed by around +1.6 °C, a ratio of around 1.4. This suggests that when the world is at 1.5 °C, Australia will be at around +2.1 °C, a trend that has occurred since between 1850 and1900 a trend that has occurred since a period between 1850 and 1900 .
- Temperatures in Antarctica reached record levels during the weekend of 3/19/22, an astonishing 40 °C above normal in places. Weather stations near the North Pole also showed signs of ice melt, with some temperatures 30 °C above normal.
1.5. A Standard Cloud as a Measure of Albedo Enhancement (AE)
1.6. Standard Cloud Carbon Equivalency to Offset the World’s Earth Energy Imbalance (EEI)
2. Methods for Albedo Enhancement
2.1. The Stratospheric Solar Radiation Management (SSRM) Project Is Not Yet Accepted
2.2. SSRM Hurdles
2.3. Albedo Enhancement from Algae, Cloud, and Land (AEfACL)
2.3.1. Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB)
2.3.2. Artificial Upwelling (AU) and/or Ocean Fertilization (OF)
2.3.3. Land Surfaces Such as Salt Flats with AE
One 1000 sq. km Salt Flat Example
Total Area Required
2.4. Albedo Enhancement Farming (AEF) and Regenerative Agriculture—Value Demonstration
2.4.1. New Values of Prior Land Use Analysis
2.4.2. Regenerative Farming Is a Project Naturally Partnered with NET
2.5. Partnering with Negative Emission Technologies (NETs) by any AE Project
- Preferred above all, the cutting of emissions in a select project (but emissions are increasing overall).
- Afforestation and reforestation, the preservation of forested areas, and the planting of new forests. However, the potential is limited in the USA  according to Gorte (2015). However, Gorte’s work could bear reappraisal considering the vigorous planting of faster growing trees more suited to the warming Arctic, which could be evaluated and developed in the USA before then being applied worldwide, including eventually in Siberia in a peaceful Russia. Preferably the species selected would protect areas of snow cover from melting and/or utilize thawed permafrost. Betts (2000)  models and weighs the increase in boreal forest plantations against the loss of snow-covered land.
- Afforestation is paralleled in the ocean by kelp farming, with the kelp dropped into the ocean depths to sequester the carbon.
- Regenerative agriculture  (Gilchrist et al. 2021)  (White 2018): Additional carbon is retained in the soil along with additional moisture. This helps deal with heat waves as the reserved moisture, and therefore latent heat, is released through evapotranspiration  (van der Linden et al. 2019)  (Gilchrist 2021), thereby cooling the surroundings. Such pastures are therefore more drought-resistant. They also produce AE and ThrEC carbon partnered with additional (NET) soil carbon.
- Biochar  (Van Beilen 2016)  (Buss et al. 2020): farm waste burned without oxygen and buried boosts sequestration and plant nutrition but is limited by fuel availability and cost. Perhaps macroalgae washed ashore would provide a useful new source and income. It has been used in the past for fertilizer without being burnt.
- Ocean fertilization or artificial upwelling (AU) captures carbon in the ocean in algal blooms and through some sinking to the ocean depths. A meta-study by Keating-Bitoni (2022) states that ocean fertilization alone is not sufficient for significant carbon sequestration : “On average, studies show that approximately 10% of phytoplankton organic carbon matter settles from the sunlight zone to the dark zone; of that 10%, possibly less than 1% is buried in ocean sediments”. However, that 10% remaining in the dark zone is effectively a temporary sequestration from the atmosphere and has the potential to be recycled by natural or artificial upwelling, thus later yielding surface algae for AE purposes or the growth of more storable carbon, such as perhaps kelp or sea grasses or seaweed. Even by residing in the dark zone, part of this carbon has been removed temporarily from the atmosphere. The value of temporary sequestration needs recognition when dealing with the short-term aspects of the crisis.
- Direct Air Capture (DAC) mechanically and chemically extracts CO2 and makes it available for storage . Izikowitz (2021) discusses the need for “20 million of the present state of the art 50 ton/year modules to deliver 1 gigaton per year”, which so far has proven to be far too expensive.
- Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is the process of extracting bioenergy from biomass and capturing and storing the carbon. In total, potentially 0 to 22 Gt per year has been identified, though this is constrained by biomass availability and cost  (Smith and Porter 2018). Again, shore-stranded, previously floating, perhaps fertilized, and AE generating macroalgae, once dried out, may provide a new source. Salt residues would need to be addressed. Such projects could be investigated for the Caribbean islands when they are inundated with huge tonnages of Sargasso seaweed.
2.6. One Existing Large NET Project
2.7. Albedo Enhancement Is Essential
- There is no longer time to cut emissions sufficiently to stop faster temperature increases, especially over land.
- The Stratospheric Solar Radiation Management (SSRM) concept has not been acceptable for much of the scientific community, though it is now being researched anew by a task force initiated by the White House in a 5-year analysis . In an act of desperation, a country may actuate the SSRM project prematurely.
- Salt flat AE will offer a measure of climate justice along with significant cooling effects. Parallel usage of high-albedo materials or compounds on arid land can yield high ScCd values and high durability while improving crop prospects.
- MCB when appropriately located has the advantage of potentially reducing ice melt and snow cover reductions through cooling while at the same time directly reducing the impact of shortwave radiation.
- Moore et al. (2019)  examined the effect of SSRM on Greenland ice melt and stated that, due to the threat of sea level rise, “How Greenland would respond is a key factor in deciding the potential utility of doing geoengineering (SSRM)”. The same models applied to AEfACL created nearby would produce useful information.
2.8. AE Projects Deserving Early Consideration
2.8.1. AE Payments Would Encourage Private Industries to Partner with Governments
2.8.2. AE on Deserts and Arid Land
2.8.3. AE on the Ocean and Lakes
2.8.4. Aquaculture Leases to Cause AE
2.8.5. Wind Farms and Artificial Upwelling
2.9. Urban Cooling
3.1. Communicating forBroader Comprehension
3.1.1. Communication of Climate Change Factors
3.1.2. Visualizing Large-Scale Activity
3.2. Which Albedo Enhancement Project to Start?
3.2.1. Ocean Fertilization and Artificial Upwelling
3.2.2. Saving Barrier Reefs
3.2.3. Macroalgae or Seaweed Farming
3.2.4. Single-Cell Algae
3.2.5. Considerations for Ocean Fertilization
Algal Selection, Research, and Propagation
Tropospheric Release of Ion Chloride
Propagate or Perish
3.2.6. Island Nations
3.3. Why Act Now?
3.4. Can you Imagine All the Cooling?
3.5. To Pay, How Much to Pay?
Three Types of Carbon Sequestration of Varying Duration
3.6. Possible Other Uses of the GasMass = RF Equivalency
3.6.1. Different Constant for Total GHG
3.6.2. Long-Wave Radiation and Low-Grade Heat?
3.7. Carbon Credits?
3.8. Is Snow Melt or Sea Ice Loss Cause for Concern?
3.9. Perception of Activated Weather-Influencing Methods
4.1. Evolving Hypotheses Resolved
4.2. Communication Improved
4.3. Two Paths Worth Taking
4.4. Two Sets of Projects Using Albedo to Cool the World
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Year||Carbon||Methane||Nitrous||CFC-12||CFC-11||15 Other||Total Other||TOTAL||Percent|
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Lightburn, K.D. Can a Symbolic Mega-Unit of Radiative Forcing (RF) Improve Understanding and Assessment of Global Warming and of Mitigation Methods Using Albedo Enhancement from Algae, Cloud, and Land (AEfACL)? Climate 2023, 11, 62. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11030062
Lightburn KD. Can a Symbolic Mega-Unit of Radiative Forcing (RF) Improve Understanding and Assessment of Global Warming and of Mitigation Methods Using Albedo Enhancement from Algae, Cloud, and Land (AEfACL)? Climate. 2023; 11(3):62. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11030062Chicago/Turabian Style
Lightburn, Kenneth D. 2023. "Can a Symbolic Mega-Unit of Radiative Forcing (RF) Improve Understanding and Assessment of Global Warming and of Mitigation Methods Using Albedo Enhancement from Algae, Cloud, and Land (AEfACL)?" Climate 11, no. 3: 62. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11030062