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Article

Polyphenols of Frangula alnus and Peganum harmala Leaves and Associated Biological Activities

by 1,2,3,*, 4,*, 4, 4, 1 and 5,6
1
Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Floriculture, Ornamental Horticulture, and Garden Design Department, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria 21545, Egypt
3
Department of Geography, Environmental Management, and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, APK campus, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, 30-688 Medyczna, Poland
5
Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
6
Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21545, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(9), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091086
Received: 9 July 2020 / Revised: 9 August 2020 / Accepted: 20 August 2020 / Published: 24 August 2020
Frangula alnus and Peganum harmala populations growing in Saudi Arabia might be rich sources of natural compounds with important biological activities. A high performance liquid chromatography diode array revealed several polyphenols in the leaf extracts for the first time, including p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, quercitrin, rutoside, quercetin and trifolin in F. alnus; and hydrocaffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and cynaroside in P. harmala. F. alnus and P. harmala showed strong antioxidant effects attributed to the polyphenolic composition of leaves and reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. F. alnus and P. harmala leaf extracts showed cytotoxic effects against Jurkat, MCF-7, HeLa, and HT-29 cancer cells using MTT and flow cytometry assays. These activities were attributed to the polyphenolic composition of leaves including quercitrin, trifolin and cymaroside, as well as the activation of caspase family enzymes 2, 6, 8 and 9 in treated cancer cells compared to control. The current findings of this study include a novel comprehensive investigation on the polyphenol composition and anticancer effects of leaf extracts of F. alnus and P. harmala from natural populations in Saudi Arabia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Frangula alnus; Peganum harmala; antioxidant; antiproliferative; cytotoxicity; caspase; H2O2; polyphenols Frangula alnus; Peganum harmala; antioxidant; antiproliferative; cytotoxicity; caspase; H2O2; polyphenols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elansary, H.O.; Szopa, A.; Kubica, P.; Ekiert, H.; Al-Mana, F.A.; El-Shafei, A.A. Polyphenols of Frangula alnus and Peganum harmala Leaves and Associated Biological Activities. Plants 2020, 9, 1086. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091086

AMA Style

Elansary HO, Szopa A, Kubica P, Ekiert H, Al-Mana FA, El-Shafei AA. Polyphenols of Frangula alnus and Peganum harmala Leaves and Associated Biological Activities. Plants. 2020; 9(9):1086. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091086

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elansary, Hosam O., Agnieszka Szopa, Paweł Kubica, Halina Ekiert, Fahed A. Al-Mana, and Ahmed A. El-Shafei. 2020. "Polyphenols of Frangula alnus and Peganum harmala Leaves and Associated Biological Activities" Plants 9, no. 9: 1086. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091086

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