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Open AccessArticle

Comparative Seed Morphology of Tropical and Temperate Orchid Species with Different Growth Habits

1
School of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Tennent Drive, 4410 Palmerston North, New Zealand
2
Indonesia Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD), Jl. Ragunan 29, Pasar Minggu, Jakarta Selatan 12540, Indonesia
3
The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Batchelar Road, Fitzherbert, 4474 Palmerston North, New Zealand
4
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Wellcome Trust Millennium Building, Wakehurst, Ardingly, West Sussex RH17 6TN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020161
Received: 5 December 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 17 January 2020 / Published: 29 January 2020
Seed morphology underpins many critical biological and ecological processes, such as seed dormancy and germination, dispersal, and persistence. It is also a valuable taxonomic trait that can provide information about plant evolution and adaptations to different ecological niches. This study characterised and compared various seed morphological traits, i.e., seed and pod shape, seed colour and size, embryo size, and air volume for six orchid species; and explored whether taxonomy, biogeographical origin, or growth habit are important determinants of seed morphology. We investigated this on two tropical epiphytic orchid species from Indonesia (Dendrobium strebloceras and D. lineale), and four temperate species from New Zealand, terrestrial Gastrodia cunnninghamii, Pterostylis banksii and Thelymitra nervosa, and epiphytic D. cunninghamii. Our results show some similarities among related species in their pod shape and colour, and seed colouration. All the species studied have scobiform or fusiform seeds and prolate-spheroid embryos. Specifically, D. strebloceras, G. cunninghamii, and P. banksii have an elongated seed shape, while T. nervosa has truncated seeds. Interestingly, we observed high variability in the micro-morphological seed characteristics of these orchid species, unrelated to their taxonomy, biogeographical origin, or growth habit, suggesting different ecological adaptations possibly reflecting their modes of dispersal. View Full-Text
Keywords: air-space; epiphytic; terrestrial; tropical; temperate; micro-morphometric air-space; epiphytic; terrestrial; tropical; temperate; micro-morphometric
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MDPI and ACS Style

Diantina, S.; McGill, C.; Millner, J.; Nadarajan, J.; W. Pritchard, H.; Clavijo McCormick, A. Comparative Seed Morphology of Tropical and Temperate Orchid Species with Different Growth Habits. Plants 2020, 9, 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020161

AMA Style

Diantina S, McGill C, Millner J, Nadarajan J, W. Pritchard H, Clavijo McCormick A. Comparative Seed Morphology of Tropical and Temperate Orchid Species with Different Growth Habits. Plants. 2020; 9(2):161. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Diantina, Surya; McGill, Craig; Millner, James; Nadarajan, Jayanthi; W. Pritchard, Hugh; Clavijo McCormick, Andrea. 2020. "Comparative Seed Morphology of Tropical and Temperate Orchid Species with Different Growth Habits" Plants 9, no. 2: 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020161

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