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Article

Endemic Veronica saturejoides Vis. ssp. saturejoides–Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Free Volatile Compounds

1
Faculty of Science, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 33, HR-21000 Split, Croatia
2
Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, A. Kovačića 1, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Institute of Biology, Karl-Franzens University, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz, Austria
4
Faculty of Forestry, University of Sarajevo, Zagrebačka 20, BIH-71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
5
Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121646
Received: 3 November 2020 / Revised: 20 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 25 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composition and Biological Activities of Plant Secondary Metabolites)
Chemical profile and antioxidant activity of the species Veronica saturejoides Vis. ssp. saturejoides (Plantaginaceae)—which is endemic to Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro —were investigated. Volatile compounds produced by glandular trichomes (composed of one stalk cell and two elliptically formed head cells according to scanning electron microscope investigation) were isolated from the plants collected in two locations. Additionally, as a part of specialized metabolites, total polyphenols, total tannins, total flavonoids and total phenolic acids were determined spectrophotometrically. In the lipophilic volatile fractions-essential oils, the most abundant compounds identified were hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, caryophyllene oxide and hexadecanoic acid. In total, the class of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and the group of fatty aldehydes, acids and alcoholic compounds dominated in the essential oils. In the hydrophilic volatile fractions-hydrosols, the most abundant compounds identified were trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, allo-aromadendrene and (E)-caryophyllene. A group of oxygenated monoterpenes and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominated in the hydrosols. Antioxidant activity of essential oils and hydrosols was tested with two methods: 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Essential oils showed higher antioxidant activity than hydrosols and showed similar antioxidant activity to Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil. Obtained results demonstrate that this genus is a potential source of volatiles with antioxidant activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant activity; DPPH; GC; GC-MS; glandular trichomes; ORAC; polyphenols; Veronica saturejoides; volatile compounds antioxidant activity; DPPH; GC; GC-MS; glandular trichomes; ORAC; polyphenols; Veronica saturejoides; volatile compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nazlić, M.; Kremer, D.; Grubešić, R.J.; Soldo, B.; Vuko, E.; Stabentheiner, E.; Ballian, D.; Bogunić, F.; Dunkić, V. Endemic Veronica saturejoides Vis. ssp. saturejoides–Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Free Volatile Compounds. Plants 2020, 9, 1646. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121646

AMA Style

Nazlić M, Kremer D, Grubešić RJ, Soldo B, Vuko E, Stabentheiner E, Ballian D, Bogunić F, Dunkić V. Endemic Veronica saturejoides Vis. ssp. saturejoides–Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Free Volatile Compounds. Plants. 2020; 9(12):1646. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121646

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nazlić, Marija; Kremer, Dario; Grubešić, Renata J.; Soldo, Barbara; Vuko, Elma; Stabentheiner, Edith; Ballian, Dalibor; Bogunić, Faruk; Dunkić, Valerija. 2020. "Endemic Veronica saturejoides Vis. ssp. saturejoides–Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Free Volatile Compounds" Plants 9, no. 12: 1646. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121646

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