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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Cadmium-Tolerant Rhizobacteria on Growth Attributes and Chlorophyll Contents of Bitter Gourd under Cadmium Toxicity

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Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
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Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan 29220, Pakistan
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Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
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Department of Agronomy, The University of Haripur, Haripur 22620, Pakistan
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Department of Agrochemistry, Soil Science, Microbiology and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
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Department of Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
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Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Agricultural Research, Ltd., 664 41 Troubsko, Czech Republic
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Department of Technical Services, Fatima Agri Sales and Services, Multan 60800, Pakistan
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Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101386
Received: 18 September 2020 / Revised: 14 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 17 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Stress in Plants)
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the heavy metals that negatively affects the growth of plants. High solubilization in water leads Cd to enter into plants quite easily, thus decreasing seed germination, photosynthesis, and transpiration. It also shows an antagonistic effect with many of the plants’ nutrients like Mn, Ca, K, Mg and Fe. Nowadays, inoculation of plants with ACC deaminase (ACCD) rhizobacteria to mitigate Cd’s adverse effects has drawn the attention of environmental microbiologists. The rhizobacteria secrete organic compounds that can immobilize Cd in soil. Therefore, this study was accomplished to investigate the effect of ACCD plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the bitter gourd under Cd stress. There were six treatments consisting of two ACCD PGPR (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Agrobacterium fabrum) strains and inorganic fertilizers at two levels of Cd, i.e., 2 (Cd2) and 5 mg kg−1 soil (Cd5). The results showed A. fabrum with the recommended NPK fertilizer (RNPKF) significantly increased the vine length (48 and 55%), fresh weight (24 and 22%), and contents of chlorophyll a (79 and 50%), chlorophyll b (30 and 33%) and total chlorophyll (61 and 36%), over control at the two Cd levels i.e., Cd2 and Cd5, respectively. In conclusion, the recommended NPK fertilizer + A. fabrum combination is a very effective treatment with which to immobilize Cd in soil for the improvement of bitter gourd growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metal; mineral fertilizers; Momordica charantia; pigments; productivity; PGPR heavy metal; mineral fertilizers; Momordica charantia; pigments; productivity; PGPR
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Zafar-ul-Hye, M.; Naeem, M.; Danish, S.; Khan, M.J.; Fahad, S.; Datta, R.; Brtnicky, M.; Kintl, A.; Hussain, G.S.; El-Esawi, M.A. Effect of Cadmium-Tolerant Rhizobacteria on Growth Attributes and Chlorophyll Contents of Bitter Gourd under Cadmium Toxicity. Plants 2020, 9, 1386.

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