Plants endure many abiotic stresses, such as temperature (heat or frost), drought, and salt. Such factors are primary and frequent stressors that reduce agriculture crop yields. Often alterations in nutrient management and constituents, along with variations in biosynthetic capacity, ultimately reduce or halt plant growth. Genetically, stress is an environmental condition that interferes with complete genetic expression. A vast range of molecular genomic markers is available for the analysis of agricultural crops. These markers are classified into various groups based on how the markers are used: RAPD (Random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers serve to identify and screen hybrids based on salinity and drought stress tolerance, while simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are excellent for the assessment of stress tolerance. Such markers also play an important role in the QTL (Quantitative trait loci) mapping of stress-related genes. Dehydrins for drought and saltol for salinity stresses are primitive genes which regulate responses to these conditions. Further, a focus on traits using single-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers supports genetic mapping and the sequencing of stress-related traits in inbred lines. DNA markers facilitate marker-assisted breeding to enhance abiotic stress tolerance using advanced techniques and marker modification.
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