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Article

Spatial Differentiation of Physical and Chemical Soil Parameters under Integrated, Organic, and Biodynamic Viticulture

1
Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Hochschule Geisenheim University, Geisenheim, D–65366 Hessen, Germany
2
Department of General and Organic Viticulture, Hochschule Geisenheim University, Geisenheim, D–65366 Hessen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101361
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 8 October 2020 / Accepted: 10 October 2020 / Published: 14 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Quality Assessed for Viti- and Horticulture)
Vineyard soils show an increased risk of degradation due to being intensively cultivated. The preservation of soil integrity and fertility is a key concept of organic and biodynamic farming. However, both systems are also subject to criticism due to their higher amount of plant protection products used and their increased traffic intensity compared to integrated viticulture, both detrimental to soil quality. The aim of this study was therefore to assess long-term effects of these three management systems on chemical and physical soil quality parameters. For this purpose, topsoil samples were taken in a long-term field trial vineyard at different positions and examined for bulk density, available water capacity (AWC), soil organic carbon (SOC), N, pH, and for total and bioavailable copper (Cu) concentrations. Biodynamic plots had a lower bulk density and higher SOC concentration than the integrated ones, which is probably due to the species-rich cover crop mixture used in the inter-row. However, organic and biodynamic farming showed an accumulation of copper in the under-vine area and in the tractor track, which is problematic for soil fertility in the long-term. Therefore, alternatives for copper in plant protection are necessary to ensure sustainable soil quality through organic and biodynamic viticulture. View Full-Text
Keywords: bulk density; copper; management; SOC; vineyard bulk density; copper; management; SOC; vineyard
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hendgen, M.; Döring, J.; Stöhrer, V.; Schulze, F.; Lehnart, R.; Kauer, R. Spatial Differentiation of Physical and Chemical Soil Parameters under Integrated, Organic, and Biodynamic Viticulture. Plants 2020, 9, 1361. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101361

AMA Style

Hendgen M, Döring J, Stöhrer V, Schulze F, Lehnart R, Kauer R. Spatial Differentiation of Physical and Chemical Soil Parameters under Integrated, Organic, and Biodynamic Viticulture. Plants. 2020; 9(10):1361. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101361

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hendgen, Maximilian, Johanna Döring, Verena Stöhrer, Fabian Schulze, Ruth Lehnart, and Randolf Kauer. 2020. "Spatial Differentiation of Physical and Chemical Soil Parameters under Integrated, Organic, and Biodynamic Viticulture" Plants 9, no. 10: 1361. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101361

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