Next Article in Journal
Surface Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Biocompatibility of Autopolymerizing Acrylic Resins Coated with Reynoutria elliptica Extract
Next Article in Special Issue
Zebrafish as a Successful Animal Model for Screening Toxicity of Medicinal Plants
Previous Article in Journal
Gravity Signaling in Flowering Plant Roots
Previous Article in Special Issue
Chemical Composition of Cuticular Waxes and Pigments and Morphology of Leaves of Quercus suber Trees of Different Provenance
Open AccessArticle

Suaeda vermiculata Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract-Based Mitigation of CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats, and HepG-2 and HepG-2/ADR Cell-Lines-Based Cytotoxicity Evaluations

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Qassim 51452, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Qassim 51452, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt
5
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Core Labs, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
6
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division (BESE), Thuwal, 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
7
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, 71524, Egypt
8
Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, JUST, Irbid 22110, Jordan
9
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, 11371, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101291
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 22 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 29 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Suaeda vermiculata, an edible halophytic plant, used by desert nomads to treat jaundice, was investigated for its hepatoprotective bioactivity and safety profile on its mother liquor aqueous-ethanolic extract. Upon LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) analysis, the presence of several constituents including three major flavonoids, namely quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol-O-(acetyl)-hexoside-pentoside were confirmed. The aqueous-ethanolic extract, rich in antioxidants, quenched the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals, and also showed noticeable levels of radical scavenging capacity in ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay. For the hepatoprotective activity confirmation, the male rat groups were fed daily, for 7 days (n = 8/group, p.o.), either carboxyl methylcellulose (CMC) 0.5%, silymarin 200 mg/kg, the aqueous-ethanolic extract of the plant Suaeda vermiculata (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg extract), or quercetin (100 mg/kg) alone, and on day 7 of the administrations, all the animal groups, excluding a naïve (250 mg/kg aqueous-ethanolic extract-fed), and an intact animal group were induced hepatotoxicity by intraperitoneally administering carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). All the animals were sacrificed after 24 h, and aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase serum levels were observed, which were noted to be significantly decreased for the aqueous-ethanolic extract, silymarin, and quercetin-fed groups in comparison to the CMC-fed group (p < 0.0001). No noticeable adverse effects were observed on the liver, kidney, or heart’s functions of the naïve (250 mg/kg) group. The aqueous-ethanolic extract was found to be safe in the acute toxicity (5 g/kg) test and showed hepatoprotection and safety at higher doses. Further upon, the cytotoxicity testings in HepG-2 and HepG-2/ADR (Adriamycin resistant) cell-lines were also investigated, and the IC50 values were recorded at 56.19 ± 2.55 µg/mL, and 78.40 ± 0.32 µg/mL (p < 0.001, Relative Resistance RR 1.39), respectively, while the doxorubicin (Adriamycin) IC50 values were found to be 1.3 ± 0.064, and 4.77 ± 1.05 µg/mL (p < 0.001, RR 3.67), respectively. The HepG-2/ADR cell-lines when tested in a combination of the aqueous-ethanolic extract with doxorubicin, a significant reversal in the doxorubicin’s IC50 value by 2.77 folds (p < 0.001, CI = 0.56) was noted as compared to the cytotoxicity test where the extract was absent. The mode of action for the reversal was determined to be synergistic in nature indicating the role of the aqueous-ethanolic extract. View Full-Text
Keywords: Suaeda vermiculata; halophyte; aqueous-ethanolic extract; antioxidant; liver toxicity; cytotoxicity; hepatoprotective; liver disorders; mass spectrometry; LC-MS; HepG-2; HepG-2/ADR Suaeda vermiculata; halophyte; aqueous-ethanolic extract; antioxidant; liver toxicity; cytotoxicity; hepatoprotective; liver disorders; mass spectrometry; LC-MS; HepG-2; HepG-2/ADR
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mohammed, S.A.A.; Khan, R.A.; El-Readi, M.Z.; Emwas, A.-H.; Sioud, S.; Poulson, B.G.; Jaremko, M.; Eldeeb, H.M.; Al-Omar, M.S.; Mohammed, H.A. Suaeda vermiculata Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract-Based Mitigation of CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats, and HepG-2 and HepG-2/ADR Cell-Lines-Based Cytotoxicity Evaluations. Plants 2020, 9, 1291. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101291

AMA Style

Mohammed SAA, Khan RA, El-Readi MZ, Emwas A-H, Sioud S, Poulson BG, Jaremko M, Eldeeb HM, Al-Omar MS, Mohammed HA. Suaeda vermiculata Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract-Based Mitigation of CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats, and HepG-2 and HepG-2/ADR Cell-Lines-Based Cytotoxicity Evaluations. Plants. 2020; 9(10):1291. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101291

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mohammed, Salman A.A.; Khan, Riaz A.; El-Readi, Mahmoud Z.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Sioud, Salim; Poulson, Benjamin G.; Jaremko, Mariusz; Eldeeb, Hussein M.; Al-Omar, Mohsen S.; Mohammed, Hamdoon A. 2020. "Suaeda vermiculata Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract-Based Mitigation of CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats, and HepG-2 and HepG-2/ADR Cell-Lines-Based Cytotoxicity Evaluations" Plants 9, no. 10: 1291. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101291

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop