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Open AccessArticle

Essential Oils of Zingiber Species from Vietnam: Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities

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School of Natural Science Education, Vinh University, 182 Le Duan, Vinh City 43000, Nghệ An Province, Vietnam
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Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Graduate University of Science and Technology, 18-Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi 10072, Vietnam
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Faculty of Natural Science, Hong Duc University, Thanh Hoa City 4000, Thanh Hoa Province, Vietnam
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Institute of Tropical Biology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 85-Tran Quoc Toan, 3 District, Ho Chi Minh City 7000, Vietnam
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Center for Advanced Chemistry, Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, 03 Quang Trung, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
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Foresight Institute of Research and Translation, University Road, Aleku Area, Osogbo 230271, Nigeria
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Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery, Nghe An College of Economics, 51-Ly Tu Trong, Vinh City 43000, Vietnam
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Aromatic Plant Research Center, 230 N 1200 E, Suite 100, Lehi, UT 84043, USA
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Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101269
Received: 21 August 2020 / Revised: 23 September 2020 / Accepted: 25 September 2020 / Published: 26 September 2020
Mosquito-borne diseases are a large problem in Vietnam as elsewhere. Due to environmental concerns regarding the use of synthetic insecticides as well as developing insecticidal resistance, there is a need for environmentally-benign alternative mosquito control agents. In addition, resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to antibiotics is an increasing problem. As part of a program to identify essential oils as alternative larvicidal and antimicrobial agents, the leaf, stem, and rhizome essential oils of several Zingiber species, obtained from wild-growing specimens in northern Vietnam, were acquired by hydrodistillation and investigated using gas chromatography. The mosquito larvicidal activities of the essential oils were assessed against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus, and Ae. aegypti, and for antibacterial activity against a selection of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and for activity against Candida albicans. Zingiber essential oils rich in α-pinene and β-pinene showed the best larvicidal activity. Zingiber nudicarpum rhizome essential oil showed excellent antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 2, 8, and 1 μg/mL, respectively. However, the major components, α-pinene and β-pinene, cannot explain the antibacterial activities obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginger; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Culex quinquefasciatus; antibacterial; antifungal ginger; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Culex quinquefasciatus; antibacterial; antifungal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huong, L.T.; Chung, N.T.; Huong, T.T.; Sam, L.N.; Hung, N.H.; Ogunwande, I.A.; Dai, D.N.; Linh, L.D.; Setzer, W.N. Essential Oils of Zingiber Species from Vietnam: Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities. Plants 2020, 9, 1269.

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