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Distribution and Redistribution of 109Cd and 65Zn in the Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L.: Influence of Cadmium and Zinc Concentrations in the Root Medium

1
Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH-3013 Bern, Switzerland
2
Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(9), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090340
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 5 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 10 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
Heavy metal redistribution is relevant for the quality of edible crops and the suitability of hyperaccumulators for bioremediation. Root-to-shoot transfer via the xylem and redistribution in the aerial parts via the phloem differ between various heavy metals. In general, cadmium is more slowly released to the shoot than zinc (e.g., in wheat, bean, and lupin). However, rapid cadmium transport to the shoot was detected in the hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. This is a key aspect in this article and might be important for bioremediation. The radionuclides 109Cd and 65Zn were used to investigate the respective influence of elevated cadmium or zinc in the root medium on the dynamics of the two heavy metals in S. nigrum. Although transport via the xylem to the leaves was similar for 109Cd and 65Zn, the further redistribution from older leaves to younger leaves, flowers, and fruits via the phloem was far less efficient for 109Cd than for 65Zn. Furthermore, the redistribution of 109Cd within the shoot was negatively influenced by increased cadmium (but not by increased zinc) concentrations in the nutrient medium. The redistribution of 65Zn in the shoot was selectively decreased by increased zinc concentrations (but generally not by cadmium).
Keywords: cadmium; zinc; concentration in medium; redistribution; xylem; phloem; root-to-shoot transfer; hyperaccumulator; bioremediation; Solanum nigrum L. cadmium; zinc; concentration in medium; redistribution; xylem; phloem; root-to-shoot transfer; hyperaccumulator; bioremediation; Solanum nigrum L.
MDPI and ACS Style

Feller, U.; Anders, I.; Wei, S. Distribution and Redistribution of 109Cd and 65Zn in the Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L.: Influence of Cadmium and Zinc Concentrations in the Root Medium. Plants 2019, 8, 340.

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