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Evolutionary Analysis of GH3 Genes in Six Oryza Species/Subspecies and Their Expression under Salinity Stress in Oryza sativa ssp. japonica

Tolerance of Iron-Deficient and -Toxic Soil Conditions in Rice

Rice Breeding Platform, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baños, Laguna 4031, Philippines
ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha 753006, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(2), 31;
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
Iron (Fe) deficiency and toxicity are the most widely prevalent soil-related micronutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Progress in rice cultivars with improved tolerance has been hampered by a poor understanding of Fe availability in the soil, the transportation mechanism, and associated genetic factors for the tolerance of Fe toxicity soil (FTS) or Fe deficiency soil (FDS) conditions. In the past, through conventional breeding approaches, rice varieties were developed especially suitable for low- and high-pH soils, which indirectly helped the varieties to tolerate FTS and FDS conditions. Rice-Fe interactions in the external environment of soil, internal homeostasis, and transportation have been studied extensively in the past few decades. However, the molecular and physiological mechanisms of Fe uptake and transport need to be characterized in response to the tolerance of morpho-physiological traits under Fe-toxic and -deficient soil conditions, and these traits need to be well integrated into breeding programs. A deeper understanding of the several factors that influence Fe absorption, uptake, and transport from soil to root and above-ground organs under FDS and FTS is needed to develop tolerant rice cultivars with improved grain yield. Therefore, the objective of this review paper is to congregate the different phenotypic screening methodologies for prospecting tolerant rice varieties and their responsible genetic traits, and Fe homeostasis related to all the known quantitative trait loci (QTLs), genes, and transporters, which could offer enormous information to rice breeders and biotechnologists to develop rice cultivars tolerant of Fe toxicity or deficiency. The mechanism of Fe regulation and transport from soil to grain needs to be understood in a systematic manner along with the cascade of metabolomics steps that are involved in the development of rice varieties tolerant of FTS and FDS. Therefore, the integration of breeding with advanced genome sequencing and omics technologies allows for the fine-tuning of tolerant genotypes on the basis of molecular genetics, and the further identification of novel genes and transporters that are related to Fe regulation from FTS and FDS conditions is incredibly important to achieve further success in this aspect. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice; iron; soil; quantitative trait loci; genes; transporters; advanced genomic tools rice; iron; soil; quantitative trait loci; genes; transporters; advanced genomic tools
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mahender, A.; Swamy, B.P.M.; Anandan, A.; Ali, J. Tolerance of Iron-Deficient and -Toxic Soil Conditions in Rice. Plants 2019, 8, 31.

AMA Style

Mahender A, Swamy BPM, Anandan A, Ali J. Tolerance of Iron-Deficient and -Toxic Soil Conditions in Rice. Plants. 2019; 8(2):31.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mahender, Anumalla, B. P. Mallikarjuna Swamy, Annamalai Anandan, and Jauhar Ali. 2019. "Tolerance of Iron-Deficient and -Toxic Soil Conditions in Rice" Plants 8, no. 2: 31.

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