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Article

Seed Pretreatment and Foliar Application of Proline Regulate Morphological, Physio-Biochemical Processes and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Plants of Two Cultivars of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

1
Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
2
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
3
Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Botany, S.P. College, Srinagar 190001, Jammu and Kashmir, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(12), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120588
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 4 November 2019 / Accepted: 7 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
In the current study, the effects of exogenously applied proline (25 and 50 mM) and low-temperature treatment were examined on the physiochemical parameters in the plants of two cultivars (V1 and V2) of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The seeds were also exposed to chilling stress at 4 °C before sowing. Plants raised from the seeds treated with low temperature showed reduced plant growth and contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids, but they had significantly increased contents of malondialdehyde, proline, ascorbic acid, total free amino acids, total soluble sugars, and total phenolics, as well as the activity of the peroxidase (POD) enzyme. Cold stress applied to seeds remained almost ineffective in terms of bringing about changes in plant root, hydrogen peroxide, glycine betaine and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) enzymes. The exogenous application of proline significantly increased plant growth, the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, proline, ascorbic acid, total free amino acids, phenolics, and total soluble sugars, as well as the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT, but it decreased malondialdehyde content. Overall, foliar application of proline was better than the seed treatment in improving root dry weight, root length, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase activity, whereas seed pre-treatment with proline was effective in improving shoot dry weight, shoot length, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and peroxidase activity in both quinoa cultivars. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; low temperature stress; proline; Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) antioxidants; low temperature stress; proline; Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yaqoob, H.; Akram, N.A.; Iftikhar, S.; Ashraf, M.; Khalid, N.; Sadiq, M.; Alyemeni, M.N.; Wijaya, L.; Ahmad, P. Seed Pretreatment and Foliar Application of Proline Regulate Morphological, Physio-Biochemical Processes and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Plants of Two Cultivars of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Plants 2019, 8, 588. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120588

AMA Style

Yaqoob H, Akram NA, Iftikhar S, Ashraf M, Khalid N, Sadiq M, Alyemeni MN, Wijaya L, Ahmad P. Seed Pretreatment and Foliar Application of Proline Regulate Morphological, Physio-Biochemical Processes and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Plants of Two Cultivars of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Plants. 2019; 8(12):588. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120588

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yaqoob, Hira, Nudrat A. Akram, Samrah Iftikhar, Muhammad Ashraf, Noman Khalid, Muhammad Sadiq, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, and Parvaiz Ahmad. 2019. "Seed Pretreatment and Foliar Application of Proline Regulate Morphological, Physio-Biochemical Processes and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Plants of Two Cultivars of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)" Plants 8, no. 12: 588. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120588

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