Next Article in Journal
Enhancement of Drought Tolerance in Cucumber Plants by Natural Carbon Materials
Next Article in Special Issue
Abamectin Efficacy on the Potato Cyst Nematode Globodera pallida
Previous Article in Journal
Variation in Responses of Photosynthesis and Apparent Rubisco Kinetics to Temperature in Three Soybean Cultivars
Open AccessArticle

Whey: The Soil Bio-Community Enhancer That Selectively Controls Root-Knot Nematodes

Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 S. Delta Str., Department of Pesticides’ Control and Phytopharmacy, 14561 Athens, Greece
Department of Ecology, School of Biology, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Department of Soil Science of Athens, Institute of Soil and Water Resources, Hellenic Agricultural Organization- DEMETER, 14123 Athens, Greece
Pesticide Science Laboratory, School of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
School of Science & Technology, International Hellenic University, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(11), 445;
Received: 26 August 2019 / Revised: 28 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Parasitic Nematode Management)
To date, it is mandatory for ecofriendly pest-management tools to be used in agriculture. Whey is a dairy-processing waste, a plant and soil chemical and fungicidal basic substance. The beneficial effect of whey on soil microorganisms, enzymatic activities, and free-living nematodes—combined with its toxic activity on the plant parasites—forms root knot nematodes. In this study, this finding is reported for the first time. A drip-irrigating tomato plant combined with whey in water at 3.125% (v/w) and 6.25% (v/w) dose dependently promoted Gram+ and Gram− bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi biomass. Respectively, whey treatment and duration augmented the bacterial feeding nematodes along with the soil enzymatic activities, e.g., alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase, and urease. The counterpart for these soil organisms’ and enzymes’ functionality is the decomposition of organic matter, nutrient mineralization and cycling. Additionally, whey applied at 6.25% (v/w) every 10 days in a field experiment exhibited an efficacy of 70% on root knot nematodes. It is calculated that the EC50/3d value paralyzes in vitro Meloidogyne javanica, which was 3.2% (v/v). Conclusively, the soil application of whey could be a sustainable and ecofriendly method to combat the root knot nematodes and additionally to enhance soil biotic components. View Full-Text
Keywords: Meloidogyne spp.; soil microbes; soil free-living nematodes; soil enzyme activities Meloidogyne spp.; soil microbes; soil free-living nematodes; soil enzyme activities
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ntalli, N.; Tsiafouli, M.A.; Tzani, K.; Mavridi, O.; Oplos, C.; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, U.; Monokrousos, N. Whey: The Soil Bio-Community Enhancer That Selectively Controls Root-Knot Nematodes. Plants 2019, 8, 445.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop