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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Cadmium on the Activity of Stress-Related Enzymes and the Ultrastructure of Pea Roots

1
Department of Plant Physiology, Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Botany and Nature Protection, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-727 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Department of Entomology, Phytopathology and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-727 Olsztyn, Poland
4
Department of Animal Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-727 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(10), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100413
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 9 October 2019 / Accepted: 12 October 2019 / Published: 14 October 2019
The analysis of the effects of cadmium (Cd) on plant cells is crucial to understand defense mechanisms and adaptation strategies of plants against Cd toxicity. In this study, we examined stress-related enzyme activities after one and seven days of Cd application and the ultrastructure of roots of Pisum sativum L. after seven days of Cd treatment (10, 50, 100, and 200 μM CdSO4). Our results showed that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots were significantly positively correlated with the Cd concentration used in our experiment. However, Cd caused a decrease of all studied antioxidative enzyme activities (i.e., catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX)). The analysis of the ultrastructure (TEM) showed various responses to Cd, depending on Cd concentrations. In general, lower Cd concentrations (50 and 100 μM CdSO4) mostly resulted in increased amounts of oil bodies, plastolysomes and the accumulation of starch granules in plastids. Meanwhile, roots treated with a higher concentration of Cd (200 μM CdSO4) additionally triggered protective responses such as an increased deposition of suberin lamellae in the endodermal cell walls. This indicates that Cd induces a complex defense response in root tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidative enzyme; cadmium; phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; plastolysome; starch; suberin antioxidative enzyme; cadmium; phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; plastolysome; starch; suberin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Głowacka, K.; Źróbek-Sokolnik, A.; Okorski, A.; Najdzion, J. The Effect of Cadmium on the Activity of Stress-Related Enzymes and the Ultrastructure of Pea Roots. Plants 2019, 8, 413. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100413

AMA Style

Głowacka K, Źróbek-Sokolnik A, Okorski A, Najdzion J. The Effect of Cadmium on the Activity of Stress-Related Enzymes and the Ultrastructure of Pea Roots. Plants. 2019; 8(10):413. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100413

Chicago/Turabian Style

Głowacka, Katarzyna; Źróbek-Sokolnik, Anna; Okorski, Adam; Najdzion, Janusz. 2019. "The Effect of Cadmium on the Activity of Stress-Related Enzymes and the Ultrastructure of Pea Roots" Plants 8, no. 10: 413. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100413

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