Next Article in Journal
Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution, and Expression Analysis of TPS and TPP Gene Families in Brachypodium distachyon
Previous Article in Journal
The Associations between Leaf Morphology, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Activity, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Fusarium Resistance in Selected Species of Wheat with Different Ploidy Levels
Open AccessArticle

Dynamics of Short-Term Metabolic Profiling in Radish Sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) in Response to Nitrogen Deficiency

1
Division of Life Sciences and Bio-Resource and Environmental Center, College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Korea
2
Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
3
National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 55365, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(10), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100361
Received: 20 August 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Nitrogen Assimilation and Metabolism)
Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient important for the survival of plants. To investigate the effects of N deficiency, a time-course metabolic profiling of radish sprouts was performed. A total of 81 metabolites—including organic acids, inorganic acid, amino acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, amines, amide, sugar phosphates, policosanols, tocopherols, phytosterols, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and glucosinolates—were characterized. Principal component analysis and heat map showed distinction between samples grown under different N conditions, as well as with time. Using PathVisio, metabolic shift in biosynthetic pathways was visualized using the metabolite data obtained for 7 days. The amino acids associated with glucosinolates accumulated as an immediate response against –N condition. The synthesis of pigments and glucosinolates was decreased, but monosaccharides and γ-tocopherol were increased as antioxidants in radish sprouts grown in –N condition. These results indicate that in radish sprouts, response to N deficiency occurred quickly and dynamically. Thus, this metabolic phenotype reveals that radish responds quickly to N deficiency by increasing the content of soluble sugars and γ-tocopherol, which acts as a defense mechanism after the germination of radish seeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrogen; nitrogen metabolism; nitrogen deficiency; radish sprouts; metabolic profiling nitrogen; nitrogen metabolism; nitrogen deficiency; radish sprouts; metabolic profiling
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Baek, S.-A.; Im, K.-H.; Park, S.U.; Oh, S.-D.; Choi, J.; Kim, J.K. Dynamics of Short-Term Metabolic Profiling in Radish Sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) in Response to Nitrogen Deficiency. Plants 2019, 8, 361.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
  • Supplementary File 1:

    PDF-Document (PDF, 2142 KB)

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3371779
    Link: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3371779
    Description: Figure S1: GC-TOFMS chromatogram of hydrophilic compounds in radish sprouts (0 DAI) grown under nitrogen sufficient condition, Figure S2: HPLC chromatogram of carotenoids in radish sprouts (0 DAI) grown under nitrogen sufficient condition, Figure S3: HPLC chromatogram of glucosinolates in radish sprouts (0 DAI) grown under nitrogen sufficient condition, Figure S4: Metabolite change data mapped onto the schematic pathway of radish sprouts grown under (A) nitrogen sufficient and (B) nitrogen deficient conditions, Table S1: Phenotypic changes in radish sprouts during nitrogen deficient condition, Table S2: Composition and abundance of hydrophilic compounds in radish sprouts grown under nitrogen sufficient condition, Table S3: Composition and abundance of hydrophilic compounds in radish sprouts grown under nitrogen deficient condition, Table S4: Composition and abundance of policosanols, tocopherols and phytosterols in radish sprouts grown under nitrogen sufficient condition, Table S5: Composition and abundance of policosanols, tocopherols and phytosterols in radish sprouts grown under nitrogen deficient condition, Table S6:, Composition and abundance of pigments in radish sprouts grown under nitrogen sufficient condition, Table S7: Composition and abundance of pigments in radish sprouts grown under nitrogen deficient condition, Table S8, Composition and abundance of glucosinolates in radish sprouts grown under nitrogen sufficient condition, Table S9: Composition and abundance of glucosinolates in radish sprouts grown under nitrogen deficient condition.
Back to TopTop