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The Associations between Leaf Morphology, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Activity, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Fusarium Resistance in Selected Species of Wheat with Different Ploidy Levels

1
Department of Entomology, Phytopathology and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Prawocheńskiego 17, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Production, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, pl. Łódzki 3, 10-724 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Department of Plant Physiology, Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 1A, 10-720 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(10), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100360
Received: 7 August 2019 / Revised: 15 September 2019 / Accepted: 21 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
In wheat, resistance to Fusarium is conditioned by anatomical, morphological, and physiological traits. The aim of this study was to evaluate selected elements of constitutive barriers in common wheat, spelt, Polish wheat, emmer, and einkorn. The activity of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme and rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were evaluated in the tissues of common wheat and spelt inoculated with Fusarium culmorum. Most of the relict wheat species were more abundant in morphological barriers than common wheat. F. culmorum penetrated constitutive barriers, which increased PAL activity and intensified ROS production 24 h after inoculation in wheat tissues. The lowest increase in PAL activity after inoculation was observed in cv. Sumai3, which resistance is based on limiting the spread of F. culmorum within the spike. Spelt line Tas 581 glumes were characterized by the highest concentration of ROS 24 h after inoculation. The ROS content remained high for five days. The results of this study indicate that high trichome density plays a key role in resistance to pathogens. In the resistant spelt line with effective constitutive barriers, PAL activity and ROS content were higher than those observed in susceptible wheats after inoculation with F. culmorum. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheat; phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; reactive oxygen species; Fusarium culmorum wheat; phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; reactive oxygen species; Fusarium culmorum
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Duba, A.; Goriewa-Duba, K.; Wachowska, U.; Głowacka, K.; Wiwart, M. The Associations between Leaf Morphology, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Activity, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Fusarium Resistance in Selected Species of Wheat with Different Ploidy Levels. Plants 2019, 8, 360.

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