Next Article in Journal
Primary Structure Analysis of Antifungal Peptides from Cultivated and Wild Cereals
Previous Article in Journal
Physiology Based Approaches for Breeding of Next-Generation Food Legumes
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Plants 2018, 7(3), 73;

Life Cycle and Genetic Diversity of Symplocarpus nipponicus (Araceae), an Endangered Species in Japan

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Hangi-cho 1-5, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan
Biotechnology Research Department, Kyoto Prefectural Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center, Kitaina-yazuma Oji 74, Seika, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0244, Japan
Villages at the Source of a River in Mitsuno, Ayabe, Kyoto 623-1133, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [2175 KB, uploaded 11 September 2018]   |  


Symplocarpus nipponicus, a member of the Araceae family, is an endangered plant in several prefectures in Japan. For the conservation of this wild species, we investigated the morphology, life cycle, and genetic diversity of three wild populations. By fixed-point observation over several years, we found that it takes at least four years for the plant to set the inflorescences consisting of spadices and spathes, and another two years for it to set mature seeds. To examine the genetic diversity in the wild population, we developed 11 novel microsatellite markers and investigated the genetic variation in three populations in Kyoto Prefecture: Ayabe, Hanase, and Momoi. The Ayabe population carried less genetic variation than the other two areas, suggesting the isolation of the habitat and thus a higher risk of extinction. Our results provide basic knowledge of the ecological aspects of S. nipponicus, as well as molecular techniques for the assessment of its genetic diversity, and thus are useful for the conservation of this endangered species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Araceae; genetic diversity; life cycle; microsatellite; Symplocarpus nipponicus Araceae; genetic diversity; life cycle; microsatellite; Symplocarpus nipponicus

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Takeda, S.; Onishi, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Ohsako, T.; Kubo, N. Life Cycle and Genetic Diversity of Symplocarpus nipponicus (Araceae), an Endangered Species in Japan. Plants 2018, 7, 73.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Plants EISSN 2223-7747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top