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Plants 2018, 7(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7030074

Primary Structure Analysis of Antifungal Peptides from Cultivated and Wild Cereals

1
Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 16/10, 117997 Moscow, Russia
2
Gause Institute of New Antibiotics, ul. Bolshaya Pirogovskaya, 11, 119021 Moscow, Russia
3
Department of Plant Protection Timiryazev Russian Agricultural University, ul. Timiryazevskaya 49, 127550 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract

Cereal-derived bioactive peptides with antimicrobial activity have been poorly explored compared to those from dicotyledonous plants. Furthermore, there are a few reports addressing the structural differences between antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from cultivated and wild cereals, which may shed light on significant varieties in the range and level of their antimicrobial activity. We performed a primary structure analysis of some antimicrobial peptides from wild and cultivated cereals to find out the features that are associated with the much higher antimicrobial resistance characteristic of wild plants. In this review, we identified and analyzed the main parameters determining significant antifungal activity. They relate to a high variability level in the sequences of C-terminal fragments and a high content of hydrophobic amino acid residues in the biologically active defensins in wild cereals, in contrast to AMPs from cultivated forms that usually exhibit weak, if any, activity. We analyzed the similarity of various physicochemical parameters between thionins and defensins. The presence of a high divergence on a fixed part of any polypeptide that is close to defensins could be a determining factor. For all of the currently known hevein-like peptides of cereals, we can say that the determining factor in this regard is the structure of the chitin-binding domain, and in particular, amino acid residues that are not directly involved in intermolecular interaction with chitin. The analysis of amino acid sequences of alpha-hairpinins (hairpin-like peptides) demonstrated much higher antifungal activity and more specificity of the peptides from wild cereals compared with those from wheat and corn, which may be associated with the presence of a mini cluster of positively charged amino acid residues. In addition, at least one hydrophobic residue may be responsible for binding to the components of fungal cell membranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial peptides; wild and cultivated cereals; primary structure analysis; biological activity antimicrobial peptides; wild and cultivated cereals; primary structure analysis; biological activity
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Rogozhin, E.; Ryazantsev, D.; Smirnov, A.; Zavriev, S. Primary Structure Analysis of Antifungal Peptides from Cultivated and Wild Cereals. Plants 2018, 7, 74.

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