Next Article in Journal
Brevilin A Isolated from Centipeda minima Induces Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cells via an Extrinsic Apoptotic Signaling Pathway
Previous Article in Journal
Biomass Production and Predicted Ethanol Yield Are Linked with Optimum Photosynthesis in Phragmites karka under Salinity and Drought Conditions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Evaluation of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Moringa oleifera on MCF-7 and HUVEC Cell Lines
Article

Co-Application of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Improves Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in Drought Stress Conditions

1
Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh P.O. Box 55136-553, Iran
2
Crop, Soil, and Environment Program, School of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Illinois University of Carbondale, College of Science, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
3
School of Pharmacy, Chemistry Interdisciplinary Project (ChIP), University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
4
Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh P.O. Box 55136-553, Iran
5
Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures, INRA USC1328, Orleans University, CEDEX 2, 45067 Orléans, France
6
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia Nº 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibraodas Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain
7
Área de Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Universidad de Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kwang-Hyun Baek, Nagaraj Basavegowda and Awdhesh Kumar Mishra
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131659
Received: 19 May 2022 / Revised: 14 June 2022 / Accepted: 20 June 2022 / Published: 23 June 2022
Drought stress is known as a major yield-limiting factor in crop production that threatens food security worldwide. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) have shown to alleviate the effects of drought stress on plants, but information regarding their co-addition to minimize the effects of drought stress on plants is scant. Here, a two-year field experiment was conducted in 2019 and 2020 to evaluate the influence of different irrigation regimes and fertilizer sources on the EO quantity and quality of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The experiment was laid out as a split plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The irrigation treatments were 25, 50, and 75% maximum allowable depletion (MAD) percentage of the soil available water as non-stress (MAD25), moderate (MAD50), and severe (MAD75) water stress, respectively. Subplots were four fertilizer sources including no-fertilizer control, TiO2 nanoparticles (100 mg L−1), AMF inoculation, and co-addition of TiO2 and AMF (TiO2 + AMF). Moderate and severe drought stress decreased sage dry matter yield (DMY) by 30 and 65%, respectively. In contrast, application of TiO2 + AMF increased DMY and water use efficiency (WUE) by 35 and 35%, respectively, compared to the unfertilized treatment. The highest EO content (1.483%), yield (2.52 g m−2), and cis-thujone (35.84%, main EO constituent of sage) was obtained in MAD50 fertilized with TiO2 + AMF. In addition, the net income index increased by 44, 47, and 76% with application of TiO2 nanoparticles, AMF, and co-addition of TiO2 + AMF, respectively. Overall, the integrative application of the biofertilizer and nanoparticles (TiO2 + AMF) can be recommended as a sustainable strategy for increasing net income and improving EO productivity and quality of sage plants in drought stress conditions. Future policy discussions should focus on incentivizing growers for replacing synthetic fertilizers with proven nano and biofertilizers to reduce environmental footprints and enhance the sustainability of sage production, especially in drought conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: medicinal and aromatic plants; secondary metabolites; sustainable agriculture; thujone; water deficit medicinal and aromatic plants; secondary metabolites; sustainable agriculture; thujone; water deficit
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ostadi, A.; Javanmard, A.; Amani Machiani, M.; Sadeghpour, A.; Maggi, F.; Nouraein, M.; Morshedloo, M.R.; Hano, C.; Lorenzo, J.M. Co-Application of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Improves Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in Drought Stress Conditions. Plants 2022, 11, 1659. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131659

AMA Style

Ostadi A, Javanmard A, Amani Machiani M, Sadeghpour A, Maggi F, Nouraein M, Morshedloo MR, Hano C, Lorenzo JM. Co-Application of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Improves Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in Drought Stress Conditions. Plants. 2022; 11(13):1659. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131659

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ostadi, Ali, Abdollah Javanmard, Mostafa Amani Machiani, Amir Sadeghpour, Filippo Maggi, Mojtaba Nouraein, Mohammad R. Morshedloo, Christophe Hano, and Jose M. Lorenzo. 2022. "Co-Application of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Improves Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in Drought Stress Conditions" Plants 11, no. 13: 1659. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131659

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop