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Article

Exogenously Supplemented Proline and Phenylalanine Improve Growth, Productivity, and Oil Composition of Salted Moringa by Up-Regulating Osmoprotectants and Stimulating Antioxidant Machinery

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Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22516, Egypt
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Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt
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Environment and Bio-Agriculture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11651, Egypt
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Department of Biology, College of Sciences and Humanities, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
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Pomology Department, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan Barceló
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121553
Received: 12 May 2022 / Revised: 1 June 2022 / Accepted: 8 June 2022 / Published: 11 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants)
Salinity is linked to poor plant growth and a reduction in global food output. Therefore, there is an essential need for plant adaptation and mitigation of salinity stress conditions. Plants combat salinity stress influences by promoting a set of physiological, biochemical, and molecular actions. Tremendous mechanisms are being applied to induce plant stress tolerance, involving amino acid application. For evaluating the growth and productivity of Moringa oleifera trees grown under salt stress conditions, moringa has been cultivated under different levels of salinity and subjected to a foliar spray of proline (Pro) and phenylalanine (Phe) amino acids. Moringa plants positively responded to the lowest level of salinity as the leaves, inflorescences, seeds, and oil yields have been increased, but the growth and productivity slightly declined with increasing salinity levels after that. However, Pro and Phe applications significantly ameliorate these effects, particularly, Pro-treatments which decelerated chlorophyll and protein degradation and enhanced vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant activity. A slight reduction in mineral content was observed under the high levels of salinity. Higher osmoprotectants (proline, protein, and total soluble sugars) content was given following Pro treatment in salted and unsalted plants. A significant reduction in oil yield was obtained as affected by salinity stress. Additionally, salinity exhibited a reduction in oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and linolenic (C18:3) acids, and an increase in stearic (C18:0), palmitic (C16:0), eicosenoic (C20:2), and behenic (C22:0) acids. Generally, Pro and Phe treatments overcome the harmful effects of salinity in moringa trees by stimulating the osmoprotectants, polyphenols, and antioxidant activity, causing higher dry matter accumulation and better defense against salinity stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: salinity; moringa; proline; abiotic stress; fatty acids; oleic acid; linoleic acids salinity; moringa; proline; abiotic stress; fatty acids; oleic acid; linoleic acids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Atteya, A.K.G.; El-Serafy, R.S.; El-Zabalawy, K.M.; Elhakem, A.; Genaidy, E.A.E. Exogenously Supplemented Proline and Phenylalanine Improve Growth, Productivity, and Oil Composition of Salted Moringa by Up-Regulating Osmoprotectants and Stimulating Antioxidant Machinery. Plants 2022, 11, 1553. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121553

AMA Style

Atteya AKG, El-Serafy RS, El-Zabalawy KM, Elhakem A, Genaidy EAE. Exogenously Supplemented Proline and Phenylalanine Improve Growth, Productivity, and Oil Composition of Salted Moringa by Up-Regulating Osmoprotectants and Stimulating Antioxidant Machinery. Plants. 2022; 11(12):1553. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121553

Chicago/Turabian Style

Atteya, Amira K. G., Rasha S. El-Serafy, Khaled M. El-Zabalawy, Abeer Elhakem, and Esmail A. E. Genaidy. 2022. "Exogenously Supplemented Proline and Phenylalanine Improve Growth, Productivity, and Oil Composition of Salted Moringa by Up-Regulating Osmoprotectants and Stimulating Antioxidant Machinery" Plants 11, no. 12: 1553. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121553

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