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Article

The Cultivation of Chelidonium majus L. Increased the Total Alkaloid Content and Cytotoxic Activity Compared with Those of Wild-Grown Plants

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Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, 21 Aizkraukles Str., LV-1006 Riga, Latvia
2
Department of Dosage Form Technology, Riga Stradins University, 16 Dzirciema Str., LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
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Field and Forest, SIA, 2 Izstades Str., LV-4126 Priekuli Parish, Cēsis County, Latvia
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Institute for Environmental Solutions, “Lidlauks”, LV-4126 Priekuļi Parish, Cēsis County, Latvia
5
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Riga Stradins University, 16 Dzirciema Str., LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sebastian Granica
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091971
Received: 16 August 2021 / Revised: 6 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 21 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
The effect of cultivation practises on both the phytochemical profile and biological activity of aqueous ethanol extracts of Chelidonium majus L. was studied. Extracts were prepared from aerial parts of the same plant population collected in the wild and grown under organic farming conditions. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of alkaloids and flavonoid derivatives were performed by LC/MS methods, and the cytotoxicity of lyophilised extracts was studied in B16-F10, HepG2, and CaCo-2 cells. Coptisine was the dominant alkaloid of extracts prepared from wild-grown plants, whereas after cultivation, chelidonine was the most abundant alkaloid. The total alkaloid content was significantly increased by cultivation. Ten flavonol glycoconjugates were identified in C. majus extracts, and quantitative analysis did not reveal significant differences between extracts prepared from wild-grown and cultivated specimens. Treatment with C. majus extracts resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity in all three cell lines. The extracts prepared from cultivated specimens showed higher cytotoxicity than the extracts prepared from wild-grown plants. The strongest cytotoxic effect of cultivated C. majus was observed in B16-F10 cells (IC50 = 174.98 ± 1.12 µg/mL). Cultivation-induced differences in the phytochemical composition of C. majus extracts resulted in significant increases in the cytotoxic activities of the preparations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chelidonium majus; alkaloids; flavonoids; LC/MS analysis; cytotoxic activity Chelidonium majus; alkaloids; flavonoids; LC/MS analysis; cytotoxic activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Krizhanovska, V.; Sile, I.; Kronberga, A.; Nakurte, I.; Mezaka, I.; Dambrova, M.; Pugovics, O.; Grinberga, S. The Cultivation of Chelidonium majus L. Increased the Total Alkaloid Content and Cytotoxic Activity Compared with Those of Wild-Grown Plants. Plants 2021, 10, 1971. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091971

AMA Style

Krizhanovska V, Sile I, Kronberga A, Nakurte I, Mezaka I, Dambrova M, Pugovics O, Grinberga S. The Cultivation of Chelidonium majus L. Increased the Total Alkaloid Content and Cytotoxic Activity Compared with Those of Wild-Grown Plants. Plants. 2021; 10(9):1971. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091971

Chicago/Turabian Style

Krizhanovska, Valerija, Inga Sile, Arta Kronberga, Ilva Nakurte, Ieva Mezaka, Maija Dambrova, Osvalds Pugovics, and Solveiga Grinberga. 2021. "The Cultivation of Chelidonium majus L. Increased the Total Alkaloid Content and Cytotoxic Activity Compared with Those of Wild-Grown Plants" Plants 10, no. 9: 1971. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091971

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