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Article

Development and Implementation of an IoT-Enabled Optimal and Predictive Lighting Control Strategy in Greenhouses

1
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Georgia, 111 Boyd Graduate Studies Research Center, 200 D.W. Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602, USA
2
Department of Horticulture, University of Georgia, 1111 Miller Plant Sciences Building, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Valeria Cavallaro and Rosario Muleo
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2652; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122652
Received: 1 November 2021 / Revised: 24 November 2021 / Accepted: 27 November 2021 / Published: 2 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of LED Light Spectra and Intensities on Plant Growth)
Global population growth has increased food production challenges and pushed agricultural systems to deploy the Internet of Things (IoT) instead of using conventional approaches. Controlling the environmental parameters, including light, in greenhouses increases the crop yield; nonetheless, the electricity cost of supplemental lighting can be high, and hence, the importance of applying cost-effective lighting methods arises. In this research paper, a new optimal supplemental lighting approach was developed and implemented in a research greenhouse by adopting IoT technology. The proposed approach minimizes electricity cost by leveraging a Markov-based sunlight prediction, plant light needs, and a variable electricity price profile. Two experimental studies were conducted inside a greenhouse with “Green Towers” lettuce (Lactuca sativa) during winter and spring in Athens, GA, USA. The experimental results showed that compared to a heuristic method that provides light to reach a predetermined threshold at each time step, our strategy reduced the cost by 4.16% and 33.85% during the winter and spring study, respectively. A paired t-test was performed on the growth parameter measurements; it was determined that the two methods did not have different results in terms of growth. In conclusion, the proposed lighting approach reduced electricity cost while maintaining crop growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); optimal control; supplemental lighting in greenhouses; image processing Internet of Things (IoT); optimal control; supplemental lighting in greenhouses; image processing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Afzali, S.; Mosharafian, S.; van Iersel, M.W.; Mohammadpour Velni, J. Development and Implementation of an IoT-Enabled Optimal and Predictive Lighting Control Strategy in Greenhouses. Plants 2021, 10, 2652. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122652

AMA Style

Afzali S, Mosharafian S, van Iersel MW, Mohammadpour Velni J. Development and Implementation of an IoT-Enabled Optimal and Predictive Lighting Control Strategy in Greenhouses. Plants. 2021; 10(12):2652. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122652

Chicago/Turabian Style

Afzali, Shirin, Sahand Mosharafian, Marc W. van Iersel, and Javad Mohammadpour Velni. 2021. "Development and Implementation of an IoT-Enabled Optimal and Predictive Lighting Control Strategy in Greenhouses" Plants 10, no. 12: 2652. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122652

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