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Article

Free Volatile Compounds of Veronica austriaca ssp. jacquinii (Baumg.) Eb. Fisch. and Their Biological Activity

1
Faculty of Science, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 33, HR-21000 Split, Croatia
2
Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, A. Kovačića 1, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Braće Branchetta 20, HR-51000 Rijeka, Croatia
4
Institute of Biology, Karl-Franzens University, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz, Austria
5
Biology Public Institution “Priroda”, Grivica 4, HR-51000 Rijeka, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cecilia Cagliero
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112529
Received: 27 October 2021 / Revised: 16 November 2021 / Accepted: 16 November 2021 / Published: 20 November 2021
The composition of free volatile compounds of essential oils (EO) and hydrosols (Hy) from four different localities of the species Veronica austriaca ssp. jacquinii (Baumg.) Eb. Fisch. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In the EOs, the most abundant compounds identified were hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (23.34–52.56%), hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid, 26.71–58.91%) and octadecanol acetate (0–6.24%). The hydrosols were characterized by high abundance of methyl eugenol (23.35–57.93%), trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (5.24–7.69%) and thymol (3.48–9.45%). Glandular trichomes were analyzed using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), as they are the sites of synthesis of free volatile compounds. We have detected glandular trichomes, consisting of a one stalk cell and two elliptically shaped head cells, and non-glandular (unbranched, bi-cellular to multicellular) trichomes on stems, leaves and the sepals. Data for volatile compounds from EOs and hydrosols were analyzed using Principal Component Analyses (PCA) to demonstrate variations in the composition of the volatile compounds identified. Isolated samples of EO and hydrosols were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using two methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity). The essential oils showed higher antioxidant activity than the hydrosols in ORAC method, but lower activity by the DPPH method. The isolates were also tested for their antiproliferative activity on different types of cancer cells and also on two lines of healthy cells, and the results showed that the extracts were not toxic to the cell lines tested. Total polyphenols, total tannins, total flavonoids and total phenolic acids were also analyzed and determined spectrophotometrically. The free volatile compounds of Veronica austriaca ssp. jacquinii can be considered as a safe natural product. View Full-Text
Keywords: Veronica; volatile compounds; GC-MS; antioxidant activity; DPPH; ORAC; essential oil; hydrosol; antiproliferative activity; PCA Veronica; volatile compounds; GC-MS; antioxidant activity; DPPH; ORAC; essential oil; hydrosol; antiproliferative activity; PCA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nazlić, M.; Fredotović, Ž.; Vuko, E.; Vuletić, N.; Ljubenkov, I.; Kremer, D.; Jurišić Grubešić, R.; Stabentheiner, E.; Randić, M.; Dunkić, V. Free Volatile Compounds of Veronica austriaca ssp. jacquinii (Baumg.) Eb. Fisch. and Their Biological Activity. Plants 2021, 10, 2529. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112529

AMA Style

Nazlić M, Fredotović Ž, Vuko E, Vuletić N, Ljubenkov I, Kremer D, Jurišić Grubešić R, Stabentheiner E, Randić M, Dunkić V. Free Volatile Compounds of Veronica austriaca ssp. jacquinii (Baumg.) Eb. Fisch. and Their Biological Activity. Plants. 2021; 10(11):2529. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112529

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nazlić, Marija, Željana Fredotović, Elma Vuko, Nenad Vuletić, Ivica Ljubenkov, Dario Kremer, Renata Jurišić Grubešić, Edith Stabentheiner, Marko Randić, and Valerija Dunkić. 2021. "Free Volatile Compounds of Veronica austriaca ssp. jacquinii (Baumg.) Eb. Fisch. and Their Biological Activity" Plants 10, no. 11: 2529. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112529

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