Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Retinoids and Cardiac Development
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Signaling by Retinoic Acid in Embryonic and Adult Hematopoiesis
Open AccessReview

Checking the Pulse of Vitamin A Metabolism and Signaling during Mammalian Spermatogenesis

School of Molecular Biosciences and the Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(1), 34-49;
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
PDF [799 KB, uploaded 21 March 2014]


Vitamin A has been shown to be essential for a multitude of biological processes vital for mammalian development and homeostasis. Its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), is important for establishing and maintaining proper germ cell development. During spermatogenesis, the germ cells orient themselves in very distinct patterns, which have been organized into stages. There is evidence to show that, in the mouse, RA is needed for many steps during germ cell development. Interestingly, RA has been implicated as playing a role within the same two Stages: VII and VIII, where meiosis is initiated and spermiation occurs. The goal of this review is to outline this evidence, exploring the relevant players in retinoid metabolism, storage, transport, and signaling. Finally, this review will provide a potential model for how RA activity is organized across the murine stages of the spermatogenic cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinoic acid; Vitamin A; testis; spermatogenesis; pulse retinoic acid; Vitamin A; testis; spermatogenesis; pulse

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kent, T.; Griswold, M.D. Checking the Pulse of Vitamin A Metabolism and Signaling during Mammalian Spermatogenesis. J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2, 34-49.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top