Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Retinoic Acid, under Cerebrospinal Fluid Control, Induces Neurogenesis during Early Brain Development
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Checking the Pulse of Vitamin A Metabolism and Signaling during Mammalian Spermatogenesis
Open AccessReview

Retinoids and Cardiac Development

Aix Marseille Université, Génétique Médicale & Génomique Fonctionnelle (GMGF), Inserm, UMR_S910, Faculté de medicine, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(1), 50-71;
Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
PDF [817 KB, uploaded 25 March 2014]


Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, is involved in signal transduction during vertebrate organogenesis. Retinoids through binding to nuclear receptors called RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) regulate various processes during cardiogenesis. Deregulated retinoid signaling thus has later consequences leading to cardiac malformations. In this review, we will summarize and discuss our current knowledge on the role of RA signaling during heart development, especially during patterning of the heart fields. We have also integrated recent experiments essential for our understanding of the role of RA signaling during epicardial development and myocardial growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinoic acid; heart development; cardiogenesis; second heart field; epicardium retinoic acid; heart development; cardiogenesis; second heart field; epicardium

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zaffran, S.; Robrini, N.E.; Bertrand, N. Retinoids and Cardiac Development. J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2, 50-71.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top