Towards Integrating Heterogeneous Data: A Spatial DBMS Solution from a CRC-LCL Project in Australia †
1.1. Existing Approaches and Challenges
- A novel perspective on PIM is proposed considering multi-source heterogeneous data for the sake of improving the potential values and interpretation performance of the built environment at campus scale.
- A general conceptual design and relational database design has been developed for unified 3D city model in an integrating manner.
- A usability analysis of our SDBMS solution through a real-world campus model.
2. Background and Related Work
2.1. 3D City Models and PIM
2.2. Smart Built Environment and Data Fusion Opportunities
2.3. Geo-Data Modeling in Spatial DBMS
2.4. CityGML and IFC Standards
2.5. Related Work for CityGML and IFC Integration
3. Precinct Information Modeling (PIM) with Data Fusion
- A Unified Model at Precinct Level (Section 3)To achieve a more compact database schema and improve query performance, the CityGML and IFC model are combined into a simple and unified model at some critical points.
- Derivation of the Relational Database Schema (Section 4)The unified object-oriented data model has been mapped to relational tables. The number of tables were optimized to minimize the number of joins for typical queries.
- Classes painted in YELLOW belong to the pure CityGML model which is subject of discussion in the following subsections.
- Classes painted in GREEN belong to the pure IFC model.
- Classes painted in BLUE are integrated objects from both IFC and CityGML model which are defined in Section 3.2.1.
- Classes painted in PINK are from sensor data, such as gas and electricity.
3.1. Conceptual PIM at Campus Scale
- City furniture
- Land use
3.2. Building Model
3.2.1. Integrated Building Model (IBM)
- _Wall is a vertical/semi-vertical element that surrounds or subdivides spaces. It has three subtypes:
- InteriorWall for an internal wall between rooms or spaces (none of its faces has connection with the outer environment);
- ExteriorWall for an external wall that has connection with the outer environment and represents a part of external facades of a building;
- CurtainWall for the outer wall that covers a complete facade of a building or a part of it.
- _Covering is a closing level that covers a space from the top side. It has three types:
- Roof for the top covering of a building or the top storey which gives the external shape of a building from above;
- Ceiling for the internal covering of any space in a building;
- OuterCeiling for the external covering.
- _Level is a walkable (not only horizontal) level that represents the bottom level of a space. It has three types:
- Ground for the bottom level of ground floor which has a connection to the outer ground to give the external shape of a building from the bottom level;
- Floor for the bottom level of a space in any space of a building except the bottom (lowest) storey;
- OuterFloor for the horizontal surface belonging to the outer building shell and with the orientation pointing upwards.
3.2.2. Conversion from IFC & CityGML to IBM
From IFC to IBM
From CityGML to IBM
3.3. Sensor Model
3.4. LandUse Model
3.5. CityFurniture Model
3.6. Transportation Model
3.7. Vegetation Model
3.8. Terrain Model
4. Database Solutions for PIM
- A class shall be mapped into one single table. The mapped table shall have at least one primary key column to store the object identifier which may be known as “ID” and must be unique within the table. Additional columns can also be added to the mapped table for storing the spatial and non-spatial attribute values of the respective class objects.
- A foreign key constraint needs to be added in case of 1:1 or 1:N relationship. For each binary 1:1 or 1:N relationship type, we choose one of the relations and include as a foreign key in the chosen relation the primary key of another relation. It is better to identify the relation S that represents the participating at the N-side of the relationship type.
- An associative table in case of M:N relationship shall be used to link the tables mapped from the associated classes. For each binary N:M relationship type, create a new relation to represent this relationship. Include as foreign key attributes in the chosen relation the primary keys of the relations that represent the participating relations; their combination will form the primary key of the chosen one.
- A foreign key constraint or an associative table needs to be set for inheritance relationship. The inheritance relationship between two classes can either be implemented using a foreign key constraint to link the subclass and superclass tables by joining their primary keys or mapped to a table that represents the two inherited classes at the same time.
- Mapping classes in inheritance relationship or same hierarchy level into one table. We assume that in most cases, subclasses may have or set the same attribute list due to data missing or multiple unique attributes make no contribution to special applications. With this consideration, some classes belonging to an inheritance hierarchy can be mapped into one single table, which results in the retrieval of data in all subclasses just need to perform queries on one table in order to avoid multiple tables joins for speeding up the overall performance. This way, the single table allows for rapid retrieving a list of different objects through a query on the category attribute which distinguishes instances objects stored in the table from different types. For detail, we can add an additional column named “OBJECTCLASS_ID” or “OBJECTCLASS_NAME” which can store a numeric value or string value in each row for representing the respective class type.
- Mapping aggregations and compositions into one table. Due to our building is objected-oriented, aggregation and composition relations of classes can be properly modeled by using a foreign key for joining each class with its parent class. For special case that recursion appears in aggregation or composition relationships, a single table for mapping of all the involved classes along with their inheritance relationship can be added in the database. For detail, we can add an additional column “PARENT_ID” as the foreign key which is used for representing the composition relationship.
5. Case Study
5.1. Conceptual Design
5.2. Relational Database Design
6. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
|BIM||Building Information Modeling|
|CAD||Computer Aided Design|
|DBMS||Database Management System|
|GIS||Geographic Information System|
|GML||Graphics Mark-up Language|
|IFC||Industry Foundation Classes|
|ISO||International Standards Organization|
|OGC||Open Geospatial Consortium|
|PIM||Precinct Information Modeling|
|SQL||Structured Query Language|
Appendix A. IFC Building Model
Appendix B. CityGML Building Model
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|LOD1||_AbstractBuilding ⇒ _Building|
|LOD2||RoofSurface ⇒ Roof|
|OuterCeilingSurface ⇒ OuterCeiling|
|WallSurface ⇒ ExteriorWall|
|GroundSurface ⇒ Ground|
|FloorSurface ⇒ OuterFloor|
|_BoundarySurface ⇒ _BoundarySurface|
|BuildingInstallation ⇒ _BuildingInstallation|
|LOD3||IfcBuildingElement ⇒ _BuildingElement|
|[_Opening,IfcOpeningElement] ⇒ _Opening|
|[Window,IfcWindow] ⇒ Window|
|[Door,IfcDoor] ⇒ Door|
|IfcWall ⇒ ExteriorWall|
|IfcCurtainWall ⇒ CurtainWall|
|IfcRoof ⇒ Roof|
|IfcSlab ⇒ Ground|
|[IfcWall,IfcRoof,IfcSlab] ⇒ _BoundarySurface|
|[IfcBuildingStorey, _BoundarySurface] ⇒ BuildingStorey|
|LOD4||[InteriorWallSurface,IfcWall] ⇒ InteriorWall|
|[CeilingSurface,IfcSlab] ⇒ Ceiling|
|[FloorSurface,IfcSlab] ⇒ Floor|
|[Room, _BoundarySurface] ⇒ Space|
|BuildingFurniture ⇒ BuildingFurniture|
|IntBuildingInstallation ⇒ BuildingInstallation|
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Li, W.; Zlatanova, S.; Diakite, A.A.; Aleksandrov, M.; Yan, J. Towards Integrating Heterogeneous Data: A Spatial DBMS Solution from a CRC-LCL Project in Australia. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9, 63. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020063
Li W, Zlatanova S, Diakite AA, Aleksandrov M, Yan J. Towards Integrating Heterogeneous Data: A Spatial DBMS Solution from a CRC-LCL Project in Australia. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2020; 9(2):63. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020063Chicago/Turabian Style
Li, Wei, Sisi Zlatanova, Abdoulaye A. Diakite, Mitko Aleksandrov, and Jinjin Yan. 2020. "Towards Integrating Heterogeneous Data: A Spatial DBMS Solution from a CRC-LCL Project in Australia" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 9, no. 2: 63. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020063