Environmental covariates are fundamental inputs of digital soil mapping (DSM) based on the soil–environment relationship. It is normal to have invalid values (or recorded as NoData value) in individual environmental covariates in some regions over an area, especially over a large area. Among the two main existing ways to deal with locations with invalid environmental covariate data in DSM, the location-skipping scheme does not predict these locations and, thus, completely ignores the potentially useful information provided by valid covariate values. The void-filling scheme may introduce errors when applying an interpolation algorithm to removing NoData environmental covariate values. In this study, we propose a new scheme called FilterNA that conducts DSM for each individual location with NoData value of a covariate by using the valid values of other covariates at the location. We design a new method (SoLIM-FilterNA) combining the FilterNA scheme with a DSM method, Soil Land Inference Model (SoLIM). Experiments to predict soil organic matter content in the topsoil layer in Anhui Province, China, under different test scenarios of NoData for environmental covariates were conducted to compare SoLIM-FilterNA with the SoLIM combined with the void-filling scheme, the original SoLIM with the location-skipping scheme, and random forest. The experimental results based on the independent evaluation samples show that, in general, SoLIM-FilterNA can produce the lowest errors with a more complete spatial coverage of the DSM result. Meanwhile, SoLIM-FilterNA can reasonably predict uncertainty by considering the uncertainty introduced by applying the FilterNA scheme.
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