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Bicycle Level of Service for Route Choice—A GIS Evaluation of Four Existing Indicators with Empirical Data

1
Department of Architecture and Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Design, NTNU—Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
Metascapes, 1752 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(5), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8050214
Received: 3 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centric Data Science for Urban Studies)
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Abstract

Bicycle Level of Service (BLOS) indicators are used to provide objective ratings of the bicycle suitability (or quality) of links or intersections in transport networks. This article uses empirical bicycle route choice data from 467 university students in Trondheim, Norway to test the applicability of BLOS rating schemes for the estimation of whole-journey route choice. The methods evaluated share a common trait of being applicable for mixed traffic urban environments: Bicycle Compatibility Index (BCI), Bicycle Stress Level (BSL), Sixth Edition Highway Capacity Manual (HCM6), and Level of Traffic Stress (LTS). Routes are generated based on BLOS-weighted networks and the suitability of these routes is determined by finding the percentage overlap with empirical route choices. The results show that BCI provides the best match with empirical route data in all five origin–destination pairs, followed by HCM6. BSL and LTS which are not empirically founded have a lower match rate, although the differences between the four methods are relatively small. By iterating the detour rate that cyclists are assumed to be willing to make, it is found that the best match with modeled BLOS routes is achieved between 15 and 21% additional length. This falls within the range suggested by existing empirical research on willingness to deviate from the shortest path, however, it is uncertain whether the method will deliver the comparable findings in other cycling environments.
Keywords: bicycle suitability; route choice; detour rate; level of service; infrastructure evaluation; bikeability; Geographic Information System bicycle suitability; route choice; detour rate; level of service; infrastructure evaluation; bikeability; Geographic Information System
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pritchard, R.; Frøyen, Y.; Snizek, B. Bicycle Level of Service for Route Choice—A GIS Evaluation of Four Existing Indicators with Empirical Data. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 214.

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