Assessing the access to fire service at an urban scale involves accounting for geographical impedance, demand, and supply, thus both spatial and non-spatial dimensions must be taken into account. Therefore, in this paper, an optimized two-step floating catchment area (F-2SFCA) method is proposed for measuring urban fire service access, which incorporates the effects of both spatial and non-spatial factors into fire service access. The proposed model is conducted in a case study to assess the fire service accessibility of Nanjing City, China, and then compares its differences and strengths to the existing 2SFCA (two-step floating catchment area) methods. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method effectively quantifies the actual fire service needs and reflects a more realistic spatial pattern of accessibility (i.e., high accessibility level corresponded to a low fire service needs). In addition, we teste the relationship between service accessibility and the facility busyness using the inverted 2SFCA method. The empirical findings indicate that the weighted average accessibility obtained by F-2SFCA is reciprocal to facility busyness across the study area (based on a 5-min catchment), and fits an obvious nonlinear correlation with the high R-square values. The above results further prove the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method in characterizing the accessibility of fire services.
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