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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8020072

Re-Arranging Space, Time and Scales in GIS: Alternative Models for Multi-Scale Spatio-Temporal Modeling and Analyses

1
Department of Geography and Environment, University of Hawaii–Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
2
Department of Geography, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract

The representations of space and time are fundamental issues in GIScience. In prevalent GIS and analytical systems, time is modeled as a linear stream of real numbers and space is represented as flat layers with timestamps. Despite their dominance in GIS and information visualization, these representations are inefficient for visualizing data with complex temporal and spatial extents and the variation of data at multiple temporal and spatial scales. This article presents alternative representations that incorporate the scale dimension into time and space. The article first reviews a series of work about the triangular model (TM), which is a multi-scale temporal model. Then, it introduces the pyramid model (PM), which is the extension of the TM for spatial data, and demonstrates the utility of the PM in visualizing multi-scale spatial patterns of land cover data. Finally, it discusses the potential of integrating the TM and the PM into a unified framework for multi-scale spatio-temporal modeling. This article systematically documents the models with alternative arrangements of space and time and their applications in analyzing different types of data. Additionally, this article aims to inspire the re-thinking of organizations of space, time, and scales in the future development of GIS and analytical tools to handle the increasing quantity and complexity of spatio-temporal data. View Full-Text
Keywords: space-time modeling; multi-scale analysis; spatial pattern; GIS; integrated framework space-time modeling; multi-scale analysis; spatial pattern; GIS; integrated framework
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Qiang, Y.; Van de Weghe, N. Re-Arranging Space, Time and Scales in GIS: Alternative Models for Multi-Scale Spatio-Temporal Modeling and Analyses. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 72.

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