Next Article in Journal
3D Landform Modeling to Enhance Geospatial Thinking
Next Article in Special Issue
Multi-Sensor UAV Application for Thermal Analysis on a Dry-Stone Terraced Vineyard in Rural Tuscany Landscape
Previous Article in Journal
Diverse Visualization Techniques and Methods of Moving-Object-Trajectory Data: A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diachronic Reconstruction and Visualization of Lost Cultural Heritage Sites
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8020064

Out of Plumb Assessment for Cylindrical-Like Minaret Structures Using Geometric Primitives Fitting

1
International Committee of Architectural Photogrammetry CIPA, 7500–7549 Enschede, The Netherlands
2
Department of Surveying, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad 10071, Iraq
3
Department of Water Resources, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad 10071, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
Full-Text   |   PDF [7964 KB, uploaded 12 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

Cultural heritage documentation and monitoring represents one of the major tasks for experts in the field of surveying, photogrammetry and geospatial engineering. Cultural heritage objects in countries like Iraq and Syria have suffered from intentional destruction or demolition during the last few years. Furthermore, many heritage sites in the mentioned places have an added religious value, and were either destroyed or are still in danger. Mosques, churches and shrines typically include one or multiple tower structures, and these towers or minarets are in many cases cylindrical-like objects. Because of their tall and relatively thin body, and adding in their age of construction, observing their inclination or out of plumb is of high importance. Accordingly, it is highly necessary for the continuous monitoring and assessment of their preservation and restoration. In this paper, we suggest an out of plumb assessment procedure using a geometric primitives least squares fitting technique, namely, cylinders, cones, and 3D circles. The approach is based on reconstructing a dense point cloud of the minaret tower which is scaled to reality by control points. Accordingly, the out of plumb is computed by fitting one of the mentioned 3D primitives to the minaret point cloud where its major axis orientation is computed. Two experimental tests of heritage objects in Iraq are presented: the lost heritage of the minaret al Hadbaa in the city of Mosul (1173 AD) and an existing inclined minaret of the religious shrine of Imam Musa AlKadhim in Baghdad (1058 AD). The results show the efficiency of the suggested methodology where the out of plumb is computed as 0.45m±1cm for the shrine minaret and 1.90m±10cm for the model of the minaret al Hadbaa. View Full-Text
Keywords: out of plumb; close range photogrammetry; cultural heritage preservation; cylinder fitting; point cloud; lost heritage out of plumb; close range photogrammetry; cultural heritage preservation; cylinder fitting; point cloud; lost heritage
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Alsadik, B.; Abdulateef, N.A.; Khalaf, Y.H. Out of Plumb Assessment for Cylindrical-Like Minaret Structures Using Geometric Primitives Fitting. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 64.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. EISSN 2220-9964 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top