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Open AccessArticle

Geographical Analysis on the Projection and Distortion of INŌ’s Tokyo Map in 1817

1
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8572, Japan
2
Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8572, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(10), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8100452
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Historical GIS and Digital Humanities)
The history of modern maps in Japan begins with the Japan maps (called INŌ’s maps) prepared by Tadataka Inō after he thoroughly surveyed the whole of Japan around 200 years ago. The purpose of this study was to investigate the precision degree of INŌ’s Tokyo map by overlaying it with present maps and analyzing the map style (map projection, map scale, etc.). Specifically, we quantitatively examined the spatial distortion of INŌ’s maps through comparisons with the present map using GIS (geographic information system), a spatial analysis tool. Furthermore, by examining various factors that caused the positional gap and distortion of features, we explored the actual situation of surveying in that age from a geographical viewpoint. As a result of the analysis, a particular spatial regularity was confirmed in the positional gaps with the present map. We found that INŌ’s Tokyo map had considerably high precision. The causes of positional gaps from the present map were related not only to natural conditions, such as areas and land but also to social and cultural phenomena.
Keywords: INŌ’s Tokyo map; INŌ’s map; georeference; projection; GIS INŌ’s Tokyo map; INŌ’s map; georeference; projection; GIS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iwai, Y.; Murayama, Y. Geographical Analysis on the Projection and Distortion of INŌ’s Tokyo Map in 1817. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 452.

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