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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120457

AutoCloud+, a “Universal” Physical and Statistical Model-Based 2D Spatial Topology-Preserving Software for Cloud/Cloud–Shadow Detection in Multi-Sensor Single-Date Earth Observation Multi-Spectral Imagery—Part 1: Systematic ESA EO Level 2 Product Generation at the Ground Segment as Broad Context

1
Department of Geoinformatics—Z_GIS, University of Salzburg, Schillerstr. 30, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
2
Italian Space Agency (ASI), Via del Politecnico, 00133 Rome RM, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GEOBIA in a Changing World)
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Abstract

The European Space Agency (ESA) defines Earth observation (EO) Level 2 information product the stack of: (i) a single-date multi-spectral (MS) image, radiometrically corrected for atmospheric, adjacency and topographic effects, with (ii) its data-derived scene classification map (SCM), whose thematic map legend includes quality layers cloud and cloud–shadow. Never accomplished to date in an operating mode by any EO data provider at the ground segment, systematic ESA EO Level 2 product generation is an inherently ill-posed computer vision (CV) problem (chicken-and-egg dilemma) in the multi-disciplinary domain of cognitive science, encompassing CV as subset-of artificial general intelligence (AI). In such a broad context, the goal of our work is the research and technological development (RTD) of a “universal” AutoCloud+ software system in operating mode, capable of systematic cloud and cloud–shadow quality layers detection in multi-sensor, multi-temporal and multi-angular EO big data cubes characterized by the five Vs, namely, volume, variety, veracity, velocity and value. For the sake of readability, this paper is divided in two. Part 1 highlights why AutoCloud+ is important in a broad context of systematic ESA EO Level 2 product generation at the ground segment. The main conclusions of Part 1 are both conceptual and pragmatic in the definition of remote sensing best practices, which is the focus of efforts made by intergovernmental organizations such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). First, the ESA EO Level 2 product definition is recommended for consideration as state-of-the-art EO Analysis Ready Data (ARD) format. Second, systematic multi-sensor ESA EO Level 2 information product generation is regarded as: (a) necessary-but-not-sufficient pre-condition for the yet-unaccomplished dependent problems of semantic content-based image retrieval (SCBIR) and semantics-enabled information/knowledge discovery (SEIKD) in multi-source EO big data cubes, where SCBIR and SEIKD are part-of the GEO-CEOS visionary goal of a yet-unaccomplished Global EO System of Systems (GEOSS). (b) Horizontal policy, the goal of which is background developments, in a “seamless chain of innovation” needed for a new era of Space Economy 4.0. In the subsequent Part 2 (proposed as Supplementary Materials), the AutoCloud+ software system requirements specification, information/knowledge representation, system design, algorithm, implementation and preliminary experimental results are presented and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial intelligence; color naming; color constancy; cognitive science; computer vision; object-based image analysis (OBIA); physical and statistical data models; radiometric calibration; semantic content-based image retrieval; spatial topological and spatial non-topological information components artificial intelligence; color naming; color constancy; cognitive science; computer vision; object-based image analysis (OBIA); physical and statistical data models; radiometric calibration; semantic content-based image retrieval; spatial topological and spatial non-topological information components
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Baraldi, A.; Tiede, D. AutoCloud+, a “Universal” Physical and Statistical Model-Based 2D Spatial Topology-Preserving Software for Cloud/Cloud–Shadow Detection in Multi-Sensor Single-Date Earth Observation Multi-Spectral Imagery—Part 1: Systematic ESA EO Level 2 Product Generation at the Ground Segment as Broad Context. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 457.

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