Next Article in Journal
An Automatic Recognition and Positioning Method for Point Source Targets on Satellite Images
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Winter Is Coming: A Socio-Environmental Monitoring and Spatiotemporal Modelling Approach for Better Understanding a Respiratory Disease
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(11), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7110433

Impaired Water Hazard Zones: Mapping Intersecting Environmental Health Vulnerabilities and Polluter Disproportionality

Department of Sociology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1291, USA
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoprocessing in Public and Environmental Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [6541 KB, uploaded 6 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

This study advanced a rigorous spatial analysis of surface water-related environmental health vulnerabilities in the California Bay-Delta region, USA, from 2000 to 2006. It constructed a novel hazard indicator—“impaired water hazard zones’’—from regulatory estimates of extensive non-point-source (NPS) and point-source surface water pollution, per section 303(d) of the U.S. Clean Water Act. Bivariate and global logistic regression (GLR) analyses examined how established predictors of surface water health-hazard exposure vulnerability explain census block groups’ proximity to impaired water hazard zones in the Bay-Delta. GLR results indicate the spatial concentration of Black disadvantage, isolated Latinx disadvantage, low median housing values, proximate industrial water pollution levels, and proximity to the Chevron oil refinery—a disproportionate, “super emitter”, in the Bay-Delta—significantly predicted block group proximity to impaired water hazard zones. A geographically weighted logistic regression (GWLR) specification improved model fit and uncovered spatial heterogeneity in the predictors of block group proximity to impaired water hazard zones. The modal GWLR results in Oakland, California, show how major polluters beyond the Chevron refinery impair the local environment, and how isolated Latinx disadvantage was the lone positively significant population vulnerability factor. The article concludes with a discussion of its scholarly and practical implications. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental health; environmental sociology; critical physical geography; intersectionality; environmental inequality; toxic releases; water pollution; logistic regression; geographically weighted regression; California environmental health; environmental sociology; critical physical geography; intersectionality; environmental inequality; toxic releases; water pollution; logistic regression; geographically weighted regression; California
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liévanos, R.S. Impaired Water Hazard Zones: Mapping Intersecting Environmental Health Vulnerabilities and Polluter Disproportionality. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 433.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. EISSN 2220-9964 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top