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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(10), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7100395

Bathymetric Photogrammetry to Update CHS Charts: Comparing Conventional 3D Manual and Automatic Approaches

Canadian Hydrographic Service, 200 Kent Street, Ottawa, ON K1A 0E6, Canada
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Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 23 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract

The Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) supports safe navigation within Canadian waters through approximately 1000 navigational charts as well as hundreds of publications. One of the greatest challenges faced by the CHS is removing gaps in bathymetric survey data, particularly in the Canadian Arctic where only 6% of navigational water is surveyed to modern standards. Therefore, the CHS has initiated a research project to explore remote sensing methods to improve Canadian navigational charts. The major components of this project explore satellite derived bathymetry (SDB), coastline change detection and coastline extraction. This paper focuses on the potential of two stereo satellite techniques for deriving SDB: (i) automatic digital elevation model (DEM) extraction using a semi-global matching method, and (ii) 3D manual delineation of depth contours using visual stereoscopic interpretation. Analysis focused on quantitative assessment which compared estimated depths from both automatic and 3D manual photogrammetric approaches against available in situ survey depths. The results indicate that the 3D manual approach provides an accuracy of <2 m up to a depth of 15 m. Comparable results were obtained from the automatic approach to a depth of 12 m. For almost all investigated depth ranges for both techniques, uncertainties were found to be within the required vertical accuracies for the International Hydrographic Organization category zone of confidence (CATZOC) level C classification for hydrographic surveys. This indicates that both techniques can be used to derive navigational quality bathymetric information within the investigated study site. While encouraging, neither technique was found to offer a single solution for the complete estimation of depth within the study area. As a result of these findings, the CHS envisions a hybrid approach where stereo- and reflectance-based bathymetry estimation techniques are implemented to provide the greatest understanding of depth possible from satellite imagery. Overall, stereo photogrammetry techniques will likely allow for new potential for supporting the improvement of CHS charts in areas where modern surveys have not yet been obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: satellite derived bathymetry (SDB); stereo photogrammetry; Canadian Hydrographic Service; navigational charts; Canadian Arctic satellite derived bathymetry (SDB); stereo photogrammetry; Canadian Hydrographic Service; navigational charts; Canadian Arctic
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chénier, R.; Faucher, M.-A.; Ahola, R.; Shelat, Y.; Sagram, M. Bathymetric Photogrammetry to Update CHS Charts: Comparing Conventional 3D Manual and Automatic Approaches. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 395.

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