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The Performance Analysis of Space Resection-Aided Pedestrian Dead Reckoning for Smartphone Navigation in a Mapped Indoor Environment

Department of Geomatics, National Cheng-Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sisi Zlatanova, Kourosh Khoshelham, George Sithole and Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(2), 43;
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Indoor Modelling and Navigation)
PDF [7628 KB, uploaded 14 February 2017]


Smartphones have become indispensable in our daily lives. Their various embedded sensors have inspired innovations in mobile applications—especially for indoor navigation. However, the accuracy, reliability and generalizability of navigation all continue to struggle in environments lacking a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) is a popular method for indoor pedestrian navigation. Unfortunately, due to its fundamental principles, even a small navigation error will amplify itself, step by step, generally leading to the need for supplementary resources to maintain navigation accuracy. Virtually all mobile devices and most robots contain a basic camera sensor, which has led to the popularity of image-based localization, and vice versa. However, all of the image-based localization requires continuous images for uninterrupted positioning. Furthermore, the solutions provided by either image-based localization or a PDR are usually in a relative coordinate system. Therefore, this research proposes a system, which uses space resection-aided PDR with geo-referenced images of a previously mapped environment to enable seamless navigation and solve the shortcomings of PDR and image-based localization, and evaluates the performance of space resection with different assumptions using a smartphone. The indoor mobile mapping system (IMMS) is used for the effective production of geo-referenced images. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed algorithm is suitable for universal pedestrian indoor navigation, achieving the accuracy required for commercial applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: pedestrian dead reckoning; space resection; smartphone; camera; indoor navigation pedestrian dead reckoning; space resection; smartphone; camera; indoor navigation

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Chiang, K.-W.; Liao, J.-K.; Huang, S.-H.; Chang, H.-W.; Chu, C.-H. The Performance Analysis of Space Resection-Aided Pedestrian Dead Reckoning for Smartphone Navigation in a Mapped Indoor Environment. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6, 43.

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