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Open AccessArticle

Overview of the OGC CDB Standard for 3D Synthetic Environment Modeling and Simulation

Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada
CAE Inc., Orlando 32826, FL, USA
CAE USA Inc., Tampa 33634, FL, USA
Center for Research in Geomatics, Laval University, Ville de Québec 100062, QC, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(10), 306;
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
Recent advances in sensor and platform technologies, such as satellite systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), manned aerial platforms, and ground-based sensor networks have resulted in massive volumes of data being produced and collected about the earth. Processing, managing, and analyzing these data is one of the main challenges in 3D synthetic representation used in modeling and simulation (M&S) of the natural environment. M&S devices, such as flight simulators, traditionally require a variety of different databases to provide a synthetic representation of the world. M&S often requires integration of data from a variety of sources stored in different formats. Thus, for simulation of a complex synthetic environment, such as a 3D terrain model, tackling interoperability among its components (geospatial data, natural and man-made objects, dynamic and static models) is a critical challenge. Conventional approaches used local proprietary data models and formats. These approaches often lacked interoperability and created silos of content within the simulation community. Therefore, open geospatial standards are increasingly perceived as a means to promote interoperability and reusability for 3D M&S. In this paper, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) CDB Standard is introduced. “CDB” originally referred to Common DataBase, which is currently considered as a name with no abbreviation in the OGC community. The OGC CDB is an international standard for structuring, modeling, and storing geospatial information required in high-performance modeling and simulation applications. CDB defines the core conceptual models, use cases, requirements, and specifications for employing geospatial data in 3D M&S. The main features of the OGC CDB Standard are described as the run-time performance, full plug-and-play interoperable geospatial data store, usefulness in 3D and dynamic simulation environment, ability to integrate proprietary and open-source data formats. Furthermore, compatibility with the OGC standards baseline reduces the complexity of discovering, transforming, and streaming geospatial data into the synthetic environment and makes them more widely acceptable to major geospatial data/software producers. This paper includes an overview of OGC CDB version 1.0, which defines a conceptual model and file structure for the storage, access, and modification of a multi-resolution 3D synthetic environment data store. Finally, this paper presents a perspective of future versions of the OGC CDB and what the steps are for humanizing the OGC CDB standard with the other OGC/ISO standards baseline. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D terrain models; synthetic environment; modeling and simulation; OGC standards; common database; geospatial datastore 3D terrain models; synthetic environment; modeling and simulation; OGC standards; common database; geospatial datastore
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Saeedi, S.; Liang, S.; Graham, D.; Lokuta, M.F.; Mostafavi, M.A. Overview of the OGC CDB Standard for 3D Synthetic Environment Modeling and Simulation. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6, 306.

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