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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(12), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5120227

Article
Closing the Skill Gap of Cloud CRM Application Services in Cloud Computing for Evaluating Big Data Solutions
1
Department of Information Management, Hwa Hsia University of Technology, 111, Gong Jhuan Rd., Chung Ho District, New Taipei City 235, Taiwan
2
Department of Information Management, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123, University Rd., Section 3, Douliou, Yunlin 640, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jason C. Hung, Yu-Wei Chan, Neil Y. Yen, Qingguo Zhou and Wolfgang Kainz
Received: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016

Abstract

:
Information systems (IS) continually motivate various improvements in the state-of-the-art of issues and solutions for advanced geo-information technologies in cloud computing. Reducing IS project risks and improving organizational performance has become an important issue. This study proposes a research framework, constructed from the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) framework, in order to address the issues comprising the stimulus of project risk, the organism of project management, and the response of organizational performance for cloud service solutions. Cloud customer relationship management (cloud CRM) experts, based on cloud computing, with many years of project management experience, were selected for the interview sample in this study. Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory–based analytical network process (DEMATEL based-ANP, DANP) is a multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) analysis tool that does not have prior assumptions and it was used to experience the dynamic relationships among project risk, project management, and organizational performance. The study results include three directions: (a) Improving the internal business process performance can improve the efficiency of cloud CRM project processes and activities; (b) The emphasis on financial performance management can reduce the cost of a cloud CRM project so that the project can be completed within the approved budget; (c) Meeting user needs can improve user risk and reduce negative cloud CRM user experience. The scientific value of this study can be extended in order to study different projects, through research methods and frameworks, in order to explore project risk management and corporate performance improvements.
Keywords:
DEMATEL based-ANP (DANP); cloud CRM service; big data; organizational performance; cloud computing

1. Introduction

Data collected from various services can be used by big data technology through different communication systems which are utilized for heterogeneous network environments. Particularly, information systems (IS) provide such data communications in big data features and utilizations. Furthermore, the IS projects are inherently associated with various types of data and risks, including those stemming from information technology (IT) [1], human resources, usability, the project team, the project, and organization, as well as strategic and political risks [2]. Thus, IS continually motivates various improvements in the state-of-the-art of issues and solutions for advanced geo-information technologies in the cloud computing environment. By way of this motivation, IS will play a key role in cloud application services in the near future.
Our research focuses on improving the risk management of cloud customer relationship management (cloud CRM) projects and performance management. Particularly, bridging the knowledge gap of cloud CRM application services in the cloud-computing environment in order to evaluate big data solutions is a valuable issue. However, the implementation of IS projects entails a high degree of risk. Cloud CRM applies to any CRM technology where CRM software, CRM tools, and the organization’s customer data together reside in the cloud context and are delivered to end-users through Internet services. In this study, we investigated the dynamic relationships among project risk, project management, and organizational performance goals of cloud CRM projects of application issues.
In summary, the research objectives of this study can be listed as follows: (1) Investigate the variables of the effects on cloud CRM projects of project risk, project management, and organizational performance from cloud application services; (2) Explore the relationship among project risk, project management, and organizational performance in cloud CRM projects; (3) Establish and improve cloud CRM projects in terms of risk management, project management, and organizational performance modes, and, thus, make specific recommendations to interested parties for evaluating big data solutions in Internet services.
Because cloud CRM plays a large role in big data analytics in enterprises, there are many risk factors and performance considerations that apply to the successful implementation of a cloud CRM project. Most past IS project studies focused on the key success factors. Our research studied the interaction between the dimensions and criteria of project risk, project management, and organizational performance. Research contributions can provide recommendations for improving the risk of cloud CRM projects and overall management performance.
The scientific value of this study is that it understands that the cloud CRM project introduction process, research methods, and research framework extend to studying different topics of the project, including the assessment of human resources, equipment, machinery, materials, and other resources. Good cost management can not only improve the performance of project implementation, but it can also provide project quality, safety, and other implementation results, which are closely related. This study also finds that stakeholders have a significant impact on project management. If there are undetected stakeholders, it can result in additional work on a project, resulting in potential delays or increases to cost.
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a relevant literature review of cloud CRM projects. Section 3 describes the study framework and methods of the Stimulus-Organism-Response model. Section 4 implements the experiment and data analysis from the experts’ questionnaires. Section 5 presents study findings and managerial implications from the point of view of empirical results, and Section 6 concludes the paper.

2. Literature Review

This section introduces relevant literature on areas including project risks, project management, organizational performance measurement, risks of cloud computing services, and cloud customer relationship management.

2.1. Project Risks

Risk and uncertainty are different concepts [3], with Knight [4] being the first economist to propose the difference between risk and uncertainty. Risk [5,6] means that although we do not know the outcome of events, we have the means to understand the results of the many different possible events and the likelihood of their occurrence. Project risk is an uncertain event that has a negative effect on project objectives [2]. Risks can be categorized as technical, external, human resource, cost, sponsor, and schedule-related.
For the project risk dimension, we integrate research on the project risk criteria through a discussion of the related literature [7,8]. Wallace et al. [8] proposed six representative project risk criteria, as shown in Table 1.

2.2. Project Management

Project management is the flexible and effective application and coordination of various resources in order to meet project objectives and demands. Kerzner [9] asserted that project management involves planning, organizing, and instruction in the use of controllable resources in order to attain concrete goals. In addition, system path management is applied to assign specific project tasks to the functional employees in a department. Project management is widely used as a project success factor [10], and in organizational change management [11], project portfolio management [12], business strategies [13], and knowledge management [14]. In the project management dimension, through a discussion of the literature on project management criteria [15,16], we identify four project management criteria, as shown in Table 2.

2.3. Organizational Performance Measurement: A Balanced Scorecard

The balanced scorecard, or BSC, is a strategic management tool used to establish strategic indicators that facilitate the implementation of strategies in order to attain organizational goals. Kaplan and Norton [17] maintained that financial experts are responsible for overseeing performance measurement systems, without the involvement of senior managers. Developing a BSC can help managers to transcend traditional views, thereby converting strategies into measurable goals that are related to financial goals, customer satisfaction, internal business processes, and learning and growth, while examining the performances of various domains. In the organizational performance dimension, we integrate research into the organizational performance criteria through a discussion of the literature [7,15]. Wu and Chang [18] proposed four representative organizational performance criteria, as shown in Table 3.

2.4. Risks of Cloud Computing Service

Cloud providers usually recommended performing security checks for enterprise cloud services in order to prevent malicious users from obtaining unauthorized access to data. Special attention should be paid in order to ensure that the clarity of cloud contract definitions and protocol services meet customer needs [19]. The cloud CRM Software as a Service (SaaS) service model is one of the applications with which a user needs only a computer, smart phone, or tablet PC web browser in order to use SaaS CRM.

2.5. Cloud Customer Relationship Management

Carr [20] asserted that cloud computing represents a transformation of the ways in which corporations perform computing, as evidenced by the shift in business computing from private data centers to “the cloud”.
Cloud [21] technology has been gradually applied to a variety of areas. Current information services have changed the amount of hardware and software, the network bandwidth size, and the amount of billing. Cloud computing uses distributed computing in order to allow customers to access a service from anywhere, and at any time, on the Internet. CRM business software, using the cloud computing service model, has become the trend today, especially in small and medium enterprise market opportunities. Cloud CRM has been widely studied in relation to the use of cloud technology to allow taxi companies to handle customers in a responsible way [22] and they have developed their own cloud-based logistic management information systems [23].

2.6. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory-Based Analytical Network Process (DANP) Method

The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL)-based analytical network process (ANP) model is used to determine the relationships among, and weights of, criteria. This is done because the hybrid model can be used across a number of fields, such as outsourcing [24], Internet stores [25], and smart phones [26]. Figure 1 illustrates the DANP model, which organizes six procedures in two parts. Procedures 1 to 3 of Part 1 mainly use the DEMATEL technique to build an impact relationship map (IRM), and Procedures 4 to 6 of Part 2, accordingly, use the ANP technique to discover influential weights. The DANP method can use DEMATEL to establish the total impact relationship matrix through the ANP model, in order to calculate the importance of the degree of the property, which is called the impact of weight. Empirical analysis using the DANP method is used to conform to real social situations. Therefore, this study uses the DANP method in order to provide the true risk and performance that occurs in a cloud CRM project, and is an in-depth exploration. These procedures are addressed in detail in Figure 1.

2.6.1. The Decision Making Trail and Evaluation Laboratory Method

Decision laboratory analysis (Decision Making Trail and Evaluation Laboratory, DEMATEL) is a method used to solve scientific problems and is also used in human affairs [27,28]. It is possible to integrate expert knowledge that is based on the matrix in order to clarify elements between cause-effect relationships.
Due to its practical benefits, DEMATEL has been widely applied in various fields, such as in marketing [29], supply chain management [30], and sustainable ecotourism [31]. In Part 1, Procedures 1 to 3, the hybrid DANP model employed in building an IRM, using the DEMATEL technique combined with ANP, is summarized as follows:
Part 1:
Procedure 1: Building a direct relation matrix. Experts transform experiences from the real world into the degree of mutual influence of the attributes using the Likert scale (1: very low influence; 2: low influence; 3: high influence; 4: very high influence). The establishment of n × n becomes the direct relation matrix, B . Then b i j is the influence degree of the ith element over the jth element.
Procedure 2: Building a normalized direct-influence matrix in order to gain a total influence-relation matrix. Using Equations (1) and (2), one can build an influence-relation matrix boundary; the influence-relation matrix influence value is between 0 and 1. The sum of the row and column values is at least 0 and at most 1.
m = m a x i j [   max 1 i n j = 1 n b i j , max 1 j n i = 1 n b i j ]
Y = 1 m   B
Normalized direct-influence matrix Y , through Equations (3) and (4), can calculate the multiple impact of elements and the indirect influence value of elements, which is the total influence value of an element. T is the total influence-relation matrix and I is the unit matrix.
T = R + R 2 + + R p = R × ( I R ) 1 = [ R i j ] n × n ,   p
T = [ t i j ] n × n ,   i ,   j = 1 , 2 ,   , n
The T c (total criteria matrix) of Equation (5) is a super-matrix, and the dimensions and criteria are listed on the left side and at the top of the matrix, illustrating the relationship and strength between the criteria. D m represents the mth dimension which contains s   n m criteria ( C m 1 , C m 2 ,…, C m n m ). Therefore, C m n m represents the n m criteria in the mth dimensions. T c i j represents the principal eigenvector of the importance effect between the ith dimensions and the jth criteria. In Equation (6), according to T c , the total dimensions relation matrix T d can be generated from the total criteria matrix, where t d i j is the mean value of criterion T c i j .
D 1 c 11 c 1 n 1 D j c j 1 c j n j D m c m 1 c m n m
T C = D 1 C 1 n 1 C 11 C 12 D i C i n i C i 1 C i 2 D m C m n m C m 1 C m 2 [ T c 11 T c 1 j T c 1 m T c i 1 T c i j T c i m T c m 1 T c m j T c m m ]
T d = [ t d 11 t d 1 j t d 1 m t d i 1 t d i j t d i m t d m 1 t d m j t d m m ]
Procedure 3: Building the impact relationship map (IRM). In Equation (7), r denotes the sum of the rows. In Equation (8), s denotes the sum of the columns. The r i criteria i (or dimensions) affects the sum of the other criteria (or dimensions). The s j criteria j (or dimensions) is affected by the sum of the other criteria (or dimensions).
r = [ r i ] n × 1 = [ j = 1 n t i j ] n × 1
s = [ s j ] n × 1 = [ i = 1 n t i j ] 1 × n
The IRM can be labeled in two-dimensional coordinates via ( r i + s j ) and ( r i s j ). The horizontal x-axis is ( r i + s j ) , which is called the prominence. The vertical y-axis is ( r i s j ), which is called the relation. If ( r i + s j ) is positive, that criteria will affect other criteria and is classified as “cause”. If ( r i s j ) is negative, that criteria will be affected by other criteria and is classified as “effect” [32].
According to calculations ( r i + s j ) and ( r i s j ), the obtained IRM can be divided into four quadrants: (1) quadrant I represents high prominence and relation; (2) quadrant II represents low prominence and high relation; (3) quadrant III represents low prominence and relation; and (4) quadrant IV represents high prominence and low relation [33].

2.6.2. The Analytical Network Process Method

Saaty [34] proposed the analytical network process (ANP) for the study of complex, nonlinear network relationship problems.
Part 2:
Procedure 4: Building the normalized total criteria relationship matrix. Through Equation (5), T c can be normalized by the total degrees of effect and influence of the dimensions to calculate the T c * value of Equation (9).
t c i 11 = j = 1 m 1 t i j 11 , i = 1 ,   2 , , m 1 ,
T c * 11 = [ t c 11 11 / d c 1 11 t c 1 j 11 / d c 1 11 t c 1 n 1 11 / d c 1 11 t c i 1 11 / d c i 11 t c i j 11 / d c i 11 t c i n 1 11 / d c i 11 t c n 1 1 11 / d c n 1 11 t c n 1 j 11 / d c n 1 11 t c n 1 n 1 11 / d c n 1 11 ] = [ t c 11 * 11 t c 1 j * 11 t c 1 n 1 * 11 t c i 1 * 11 t c i j * 11 t c i n 1 * 11 t c n 1 1 * 11 t c n 1 1 * 11 t c n 1 n 1 * 11 ]   and   T c * = [ T c * 11 T c * 1 j T c * 1 m T c * i 1 T c * i j T c * i m T c * m 1 T c * m j T c * m m ]
Procedure 5: Building the normalized total dimension relationship matrix. In Equation (6), T d can be normalized using Equation (10) in order to determine T d * . T d * represents the weights of dimensions.
t d i = j = 1 m t d i j ,
T d * = [ t d 11 / t d 1 t d 1 j / t d 1 t d 1 m / t d 1 t d i 1 / t d i t d i j / t d i t d i m / t d i t d m 1 / t d m t d m j / t d m t d m m / t d m ]       = [ T d * 11 T d * 1 j T d * 1 m T d * i 1 T d * i j T d * i m T d * m 1 T d * m j T d * m m ]
Procedure 6: Building the weighted super-matrix and obtaining influential weights of elements. Through Equation (11), the T c * of normalization and the multiplied T d * can determine the original weighted super-matrix.
G = [ T c * 11 × T d * 11 T c * 1 j × T d * 1 j T c * 1 m × T d * 1 m T c * i 1 × T d * i 1 T c * i j × T d i j T c * i m × T d * i m T c * m 1 × T d * m 1 T c * m j × T d * m j T c * m m × T d * m m ]
Equation (12) means that G is further transposed in order to obtain column-stochastic super-matrix G * .
G * = [ T c * 11 × T d * 11 T c * i 1 × T d * i 1 T c * m 1 × T d * m 1 T c * 1 j × T d * 1 j T c * i j × T d i j T c * m j × T d * m j T c * 1 m × T d * 1 m T c * i m × T d * i m T c * m m × T d * m m ]
Taking G * , and by raising it to a sufficiently large power, φ (i.e., lim φ ( G * ) φ ) will obtain the final global priority matrix (i.e., W = [ W 1 ,   W j , W n ] ).
This study explores the impact of project risks, project management, and BSC-implemented cloud CRM projects in enterprises. Cloud CRM projects belong to the scope of IS projects; thus, the collection of literature used includes IS-related research topics. In the past, there was little discussion on cloud CRM in IS projects. Most of them were based on general IS project topics (Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), traditional CRM, etc.). In order to understand more about the interaction between cloud CRM projects and related criteria, we use the DANP method to confirm the impact and importance of cloud CRM project criteria to meet research needs. We look forward to finding the key factors influencing the success of cloud CRM projects, from the point of view of this research topic, and how to reduce project risks and improve the project performance.

3. Research Methodology

The purpose of this section is to introduce the procedures, including the research framework and data collection.

3.1. Research Framework

Based on the literature review and the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model, which posits that environmental factors act as stimuli that affect individuals’ cognitive reactions and then their behavior [35], S-O-R mainly provides the stimulus of the environment, the state of the emotions, and the possible connections among human behavior. In this study, the S-O-R model uses the basis of the research framework, and understands the impact of project risk and organizational performance to further explore the relationships among variables. Questionnaires for this study were collected using a questionnaire survey. This study is a cloud CRM project experience of experts in the field. Figure 2 shows the research framework used to investigate the relationship among the three dimensions of project risk, project management, and organizational performance, and includes 14 related constructs. Major dimensions and criteria of this study can be summarized, as shown in Table 4.

3.2. Data Collection

This study invited a number of experts from various areas of cloud CRM project experience to participate in the survey. Through the experiences of experts in the cloud CRM project implementation process, we determined project risk factors and performance improvements. The sample size of the questionnaire collected was based on the principle of theoretic saturation [36], obtaining consensus data from 18 experts. The consensus data were put through the DANP operation in order to finally obtain the DNP weight data.
We conducted a survey of 18 experts who are currently employed as cloud CRM experts, with multiple years of practical experience in project management. This was based on the recommendations of Northcutt and McCoy [37], who suggested that a focus group should be comprised of 12–20 experts who are (a) knowledgeable and highly experienced in the research topic; (b) capable of contemplating a topic and transcribing their thoughts into text; (c) motivated and available to participate in the research; (d) homogeneous regarding distance and power; and (e) able to exhibit excellent teamwork and are not overly dominant or excessively shy in expressing their opinions.
The number of participants was determined based on the principle of information saturation. We asked the experts the questions presented in the questionnaire in person, while providing them with detailed explanations and examples to ensure they understood the actual meaning of the research framework. The participants assessed the impacts of the criteria by conducting pairwise comparisons. Table 5 presents demographic information about the surveyed experts.

4. Experiments and Data Analysis

4.1. Establishing IRMs Using the DEMATEL Technique

We determined the sample size based on the principle of theoretical saturation [36]. The theoretical saturation of this study is evaluated using the “errors of gap ratio” (EGR), as defined below [25]:
E G R = 1 n ( n 1 ) i = 1 n j = 1 n | a i j p a i j p 1 | a i j p × 100 %
where   p denotes the number of samples and a i j p is the average influence of i criteria on j ; the number of gap ratio elements is n ( n 1 ) . When EGR is α , the significant confidence is ( 1 α ) . In general, when α is less than 5%, we have over 95% confidence to note that there are no significant differences between evaluations of sample sizes p and p 1. Consequently, it is reasonable to propose that sample size p is significantly closer to the theoretical saturation and is qualified to be an appropriate size.
First, based on the data in Table 6 and Table 7, EGR is counted as 4.766%, representing a significant confidence of 95.234% on group consensus. Consequently, Table 7 is used as input data for further DEMATEL calculations. Accordingly, Procedures 1 to 3, presented in Section 3.2., were implemented. (1) In Procedure 1, the initial direct-relationship matrix B was normalized to obtain matrix Y . All elements y i j in Y must satisfy 0 y i j 1 , and the principal diagonal element must equal 0. Table 8 presents the results of the normalized initial direct-relation matrix. (2) In Procedure 2, the total criteria relation matrix T c and the total dimensions relation matrix T d can be obtained through matrix Y . Table 9 and Table 10 show the total criteria relationship matrix and the total dimensions relationship matrix, respectively. (3) In Procedure 3, the degree to which each criterion and dimension influences and is influenced by all others was determined. Table 11 describes the sum of influences given and received by dimensions and criteria.
After Procedures 1 to 3, the attained results were adopted to produce four IRMs: A dimensions of IRM, a dimension A–criterion of IRM, a dimension B–criterion of IRM, and a dimension C–criterion of IRM, all of which are displayed in Figure 3, Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6, respectively.
The data in Table 8 are calculated using Equations (1) and (2), and express the results of the normalized initial direct-relation matrix.
The data in Table 9 and Table 10 are calculated using Equation (3) to Equation (6), and express the total criteria relationship matrix and the total dimensions relationship matrices, respectively.
The data in Table 11 are calculated using Equations (7) and (8), and express the sum of influences given and received by dimensions and criteria.

4.2. Calculating Criterion Weights Using ANP

In the ANP technique processing, Procedures 4 to 6 were executed accordingly. (1) In Procedures 4 and 5, the total criteria relationship matrix and total dimension relationship matrix were normalized to yield T c * and T d * , respectively, and were subsequently multiplied with each other to produce the original weighted super-matrix. Table 12 and Table 13 list the results of the normalized total criteria relationship matrix and the normalized total dimensions relationship matrix, respectively. (2) In Procedure 6, Matrix G was transposed to G * such that G * satisfies the column-stochastic principle. Table 14 shows the weighted super-matrix. Next, G * was multiplied by itself ( lim φ ( G * ) φ ), forming a converged stable limited matrix W . Table 15 lists the limit of the weighted super-matrix. From the experimental results, Table 16 presents the results of criterion weights, Table 17 shows the relationship matrix of organizational performance and project risk, and Table 18 shows the relationship matrix of organizational performance and project management.
The data in Table 12 and Table 13 are calculated using Equations (9) and (10), and express the results of the normalized total criteria relationship matrix and the normalized total dimensions relationship matrix, respectively.
The data in Table 14 and Table 15 are calculated using Equations (11) and (12), and express the weighted super-matrix and the limit of the weighted super-matrix.

5. Results and Discussion

By using the practical experience of cloud CRM experts and the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM)-based DANP model, we determined the dimensions and criteria that have weights.

5.1. Findings

(1) Dimension impact relationship: The impact relationships between the three dimensions of project risk, project management, and organizational performance are validated because the total criteria relationship matrix and total dimensions relationship matrix can reveal the impact levels among each element. Additionally, the matrix contains no null values, thus reflecting the dynamic and complex relationships existing in real-world organizations. Figure 3 presents the impact relationship among the three dimensions. Dimension B impacts A and C (termed as B→{A, C}), and A impacts C (A→{C}). For dimension B (project management), the maximal value on r i + s j (the horizontal axis) is 1.09, indicating that the experts felt that B has the strongest impact relationship intensity; the maximal relationship on r i s j (the vertical axis) is 0.16, meaning that the experts believed B has the strongest direct effect on other dimensions; finally, the minimal value of r i s j (the vertical axis) is –0.25, suggesting that the experts thought C (organizational performance) is easily influenced by other criteria.
(2) Dimension A–criterion impact relationship: Figure 4 shows the impact relationship of dimension A with six criteria. Criterion a6 impacts a5, a4, a2, a3, and a1 (a6→{a5, a4, a2, a3, a1}); a5 impacts a4, a2, a3, and a1 (a5→{a4, a2, a3, a1}); a4 impacts a2, a3, and a1 (a4→{a2, a3, a1}); a2 impacts a3 and a1 (a2→{a3, a1}); and a3 impacts a1 (a3→{a1}). According to the degree of influence, organizational environment risk exerts the strongest impact on other criteria, indicating that the organizational environment for projects exerts a profound influence on project risk.
(3) Dimension B–criterion impact relationship: Figure 5 shows the impact relationship of dimension B with four criteria. Criterion b1 impacts b2, b3, and b4 (b1→{b2, b3, b4}); b2 impacts b3 and b4 (b2→{b3, b4}); and b3 impacts b4 (b3→{b4}). According to the degree of influence, top management support exerts the strongest impact on other criteria, indicating that the amount of supporting senior managers provided to projects strongly influences project management.
(4) Dimension C–criterion impact relationship: Figure 6 shows the impact relationship of dimension C with four criteria. Criterion c4 impacts c2, c1, and c3 (c4→{c2, c1, c3}); c2 impacts c1 and c3 (c2→{c1, c3}); and c1 impacts c3 (c1→{c3}). According to the degree of influence, innovative and learning performance highly impacts other criteria, indicating that personal or organizational learning and growth associated with an information project strongly influence organizational performance.
(5) Weights of each dimension and criterion impact relationship: Furthermore, the influential weights of criteria and dimensions are clearly shown in Table 16. The highest dimension weight was found in the project risk dimension, indicating that the experts placed a high value on project risk; in addition, c2 (internal business process performance) was ranked number one. Furthermore, b1 (top management support) and a6 (organizational environment risk) had the lowest weights, which indicates that these two criteria exert the least impact compared with other criteria.
(6) The impact relationship of organizational performance, project risk, and project management: Next, we analyzed the relative importance of the overall organization for each project risk (Table 17) and project management (Table 18) criteria. Specifically, a1 (user risk) plays a critical role in organizational performance. As shown in Table 18, b2 (project planning and control) in the dimension of project management is essential to organizational performance.
(7) Required improvements for each dimension and criterion: Based on the causal relationship between each dimension and criterion, there were three dimensions (in order of priority) that required improvement: project management, project risk, and organizational performance. Moreover, improving the criteria, user risk, and project planning and control should be prioritized.

5.2. Academic and Managerial Implications

5.2.1. Academic Implications

In the results of this study, if a user has a negative attitude toward a project, it will have a high impact on project risk; Hung et al. [38] studied these same results. The most direct impact of user risk is a delay in project planning. When users do not want to cooperate, or even violate the project, then project priorities gradually reduce. When the user keeps in touch with the project and the development team, the user risk can be reduced. The main reasons for user risk include low motivation and no demand or no opportunity to participate. Therefore, the DANP can correctly point out the weight of these variables and identify priorities for improvement, which can provide decision-makers with the right project management strategy.

5.2.2. Managerial Implications

According to the results of this study, using project management practices improves the cloud CRM project risk and organizational performance. This study recommends that the following criteria be prioritized for improvement. (1) Internal business process performance: Through time management program planning, which is work schedule content analysis with a work breakdown structure (WBS), the critical path method (CPM), the program evaluation review technique (PERT), Pert and Gantt chart tools or techniques to improve the efficiency of the project development processes and activities. (2) Financial performance: One can use the project management information system (PMIS) to perform project cost management. Only project objectives can be controlled; therefore, it is important that the project cost determine the cost management objective at the beginning of the project. Project cost management includes estimated costs, budgeted costs, and controlled costs so that the project can be completed within an approved budget. Expecting project development costs within a budget can achieve a return on investment (ROI). (3) User risk: Improves the user’s resistance to changes in mentality and reduces the negative impacts of users on the cloud CRM project.

6. Conclusions

In this study, using DEAMTEL can affect the known dimension order of a cloud CRM project for Internet services as follows: “project management (B)”, “project risk (A)”, “organizational performance (C)”. For dimension A, the order of the criterion impact degrees is as follows: “organizational environment risk (a6)”, “team risk (a5)”, “planning and control risk (a4)”, “requirements risk (a2)”, “project complexity risk (a3)”, and “user risk (a1)”. For dimension B, the order of the criterion impact degrees is as follows: “top management support (b1)”, “project planning and control (b2)”, “internal integration (b3)”, and “user participation (b4)”; regarding dimension C, the order of the criterion impact degrees is: “learning and growth performance (c4)”, “internal business process performance (c2)”, “customer performance (c1)”, and “financial performance (c3)”. Furthermore, calculation of DANP weights indicates that “project risk (A)” is the most important in a cloud CRM project. “Internal business process performance (c2)”, “financial performance (c3)”, and “user risk (a1)” have the highest influences, while “customer performance (c1)” and “project planning and control (b2)” were ranked as the fourth and fifth weights.
Based on the causality between dimensions, criteria gain highly influential factors, which are project management, organizational environment risk, top management support, learning, and growth performance. Cloud CRM projects need to improve the internal business process performance, financial performance, and user risk. The following suggestions for improvement are proposed.
According to the results of the cloud CRM expert study, cloud CRM project managers can consider making relevant improvements based on the following three criteria. (1) Internal business process performance through effective project quality planning and problem solving can improve internal processes of cloud CRM project planning, execution, and control, thereby supporting effective tracking of milestones. The purpose of monitoring project results is to determine project quality standards. Project results include the results of projects and the project management performance that can be delivered. (2) Financial performance during execution of a project and periodic review of financial performance can ensure the best use of limited resources. When a budget is added, it should be strictly monitored. Financial audits should be implemented regularly at each stage of a project in order to find problems at early stages. (3) If the user does not have sufficient knowledge of the cloud CRM system, a project knowledge management system can be created; thus, project management experience and best practices can be transferred to the relevant members of a project, and staff training results can be improved significantly.
The reasons for the present selection of research methods and analyses are as follows: The difference between the ANP method and the analytic hierarchical process (AHP) method is that the criteria and dimensions in the AHP method must be independent of each other in order to calculate the full weight of the assessment. The ANP method can evaluate the method of criteria and dimension weights. The DEMATEL method can determine the direct and indirect relationships between the dimensions. The use of the DEMATEL method is more than a traditional evaluation method, and it is more suitable for dealing with real-world complex decision-making issues. The DEMATEL method can quantify the relationship of complex problems, so that decision-makers can determine the structure of a problem and the causal relationships in factors. The DANP method can be combined with DEMATEL and ANP in order to improve the overall factor relevance and the performance of cloud CRM projects.
Most previous IS project studies focus on key success factors which our research contributions can analyze, from different contexts and criteria. The relevance of the study results can provide recommendations to an enterprise for cloud CRM project risk improvement, and enhance the organizational performance of enterprises. Future directions in this research can study different IS or non-IS projects, and the scope of sampling can be expanded in order to fit other areas of a project.

Author Contributions

You-Shyang Chen analyzed the data, revised the paper, and wrote the main manuscript text. Chien-Ku Lin conceived the discovery approach, performed the experiments, and drafted the manuscript. Huan-Ming Chuang made substantial contributions to the methodological development and preparation of the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

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Figure 1. Process flow of the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory–based analytical network process (DANP) model.
Figure 1. Process flow of the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory–based analytical network process (DANP) model.
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Figure 2. Research framework of this study.
Figure 2. Research framework of this study.
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Figure 3. Dimensions of impact relationship map (IRM).
Figure 3. Dimensions of impact relationship map (IRM).
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Figure 4. Dimension A–criterion of IRM.
Figure 4. Dimension A–criterion of IRM.
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Figure 5. Dimension B–criterion of IRM.
Figure 5. Dimension B–criterion of IRM.
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Figure 6. Dimension C–criterion of IRM.
Figure 6. Dimension C–criterion of IRM.
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Table 1. Explanation of project risk criteria.
Table 1. Explanation of project risk criteria.
CriteriaExplain
User riskUsers hold a negative attitude to the project and therefore do not participate in project development, thus increasing the risk of project failure.
Requirements riskMany uncertainty factors about system requirements have an adverse effect on the project performance.
Project complexity riskUncertainty factors inherent in software projects will increase the difficulty of project development.
Planning and control riskSoftware development process planning and unsuitable control will lead to impractical schedules, budgets, and project evaluation milestones.
Team riskCharacteristics of team members can increase the uncertainty of project results.
Organizational environment riskUncertainty factors of the organizational environment will seriously impact project performance.
Table 2. Explanation of project management criteria.
Table 2. Explanation of project management criteria.
CriteriaExplain
Top management supportExecutives emphasize “IS” professionals and provide related resources.
Project planning and controlTo record a formal project plan and oversee a project will be management tools.
Internal integrationUsed to ensure that the project team operates in a consistent manner with project management technology.
User participationUsed to integrate all the project teams and organize users at each level for project management technology.
Table 3. Explanation of organizational performance criteria.
Table 3. Explanation of organizational performance criteria.
CriteriaExplain
Customer performanceThe special project outcomes meet the needs of the users.
Internal business process performanceThe special project development process is efficient.
Financial performanceThe special project has a favorable investment for learning and growth opportunities.
Learning and growth performanceThe project provides personal or organizational learning and growth opportunities.
Table 4. Dimensions and influential criteria of the research framework.
Table 4. Dimensions and influential criteria of the research framework.
Dimension Influential Criterion
A—Project risk a1 User risk
a2 Requirements risk
a3 Project complexity risk
a4 Planning and control risk
a5 Team risk
a6 Organizational environment risk
B—Project managementb1 Top management support
b2 Project planning and control
b3 Internal integration
b4 User participation
C—Organizational performancec1 Customer performance
c2 Internal business process performance
c3 Financial performance
c4 Learning and growth performance
Table 5. Demographic data of the cloud customer relationship management experts.
Table 5. Demographic data of the cloud customer relationship management experts.
FeatureDemographic VariableNo. of PeoplePercentage
GenderMale1372.22%
Female528.78%
Age31–40 years1372.22%
41–50 years528.78%
Education levelBachelors422.22%
Masters1372.22%
Doctor15.56%
OccupationBusiness Manager15.56%
Information personnel1055.56%
Information manager422.22%
R&D Engineer211.11%
Educators15.56%
Seniority0–2 years15.56%
3–5 years316.67%
6–10 years950.00%
11 years and more527.78%
Years of experience in cloud CRM project management4–5 years 950.00%
6–10 years 844.44%
11 years and more 15.56%
Table 6. Group consensus of the 17 respondents on the degree of influence among the criteria.
Table 6. Group consensus of the 17 respondents on the degree of influence among the criteria.
Criteriaa1a2a3a4a5a6b1b2b3b4c1c2c3c4
a10.000 2.647 1.647 2.235 1.471 0.941 1.000 1.941 1.588 2.765 1.706 2.176 1.353 1.765
a21.882 0.000 2.765 2.176 1.765 1.176 1.588 1.412 1.824 1.706 1.706 2.235 1.706 1.765
a32.941 1.588 0.000 2.529 2.059 1.412 0.882 2.765 1.647 1.824 1.471 2.176 1.706 1.529
a42.118 2.118 1.765 0.000 2.118 1.412 1.118 2.529 2.235 2.059 2.176 2.294 2.353 2.353
a52.000 1.471 2.529 2.176 0.000 1.941 1.235 1.882 2.765 1.824 1.882 2.176 1.765 1.706
a62.235 1.882 2.000 2.294 2.118 0.000 1.471 1.765 2.235 1.176 1.176 2.176 2.118 1.529
b13.059 2.471 2.529 2.176 1.706 2.882 0.000 3.176 3.000 2.118 1.588 2.176 2.176 2.000
b22.647 2.412 2.118 2.471 1.588 1.412 1.941 0.000 2.941 2.765 2.353 2.706 2.647 2.118
b32.235 1.941 2.176 2.059 2.471 2.000 1.588 2.059 0.000 2.471 2.176 3.118 2.471 2.000
b43.059 2.118 1.647 1.235 1.471 1.235 1.059 1.294 1.706 0.000 2.412 2.000 1.647 2.412
c11.118 0.588 0.647 0.471 0.647 0.412 1.176 0.588 0.235 1.294 0.000 1.176 2.294 1.059
c21.000 0.941 0.706 0.706 0.882 0.588 1.176 1.529 1.353 0.941 1.941 0.000 2.294 1.529
c30.647 0.588 0.706 0.588 0.529 0.412 1.706 1.176 0.412 0.294 0.941 1.529 0.000 0.824
c41.294 0.706 1.118 1.000 0.882 0.353 1.059 1.353 1.118 1.353 1.471 1.647 1.235 0.000
Table 7. Group consensus of the 18 respondents on the degree of influence among the criteria.
Table 7. Group consensus of the 18 respondents on the degree of influence among the criteria.
Criteriaa1a2a3a4a5a6b1b2b3b4c1c2c3c4
a10.000 2.722 1.556 2.111 1.389 0.889 1.111 1.833 1.500 2.778 1.778 2.167 1.278 1.778
a21.778 0.000 2.778 2.222 1.833 1.222 1.611 1.500 1.722 1.611 1.833 2.333 1.778 1.667
a32.778 1.500 0.000 2.389 2.111 1.333 0.833 2.611 1.556 1.722 1.389 2.056 1.611 1.611
a42.167 2.000 1.889 0.000 2.222 1.333 1.056 2.556 2.278 2.111 2.222 2.333 2.389 2.389
a52.056 1.556 2.556 2.222 0.000 1.833 1.167 2.000 2.778 1.722 2.000 2.278 1.833 1.778
a62.333 1.944 1.889 2.333 2.167 0.000 1.556 1.833 2.278 1.333 1.222 2.222 2.222 1.556
b13.111 2.500 2.389 2.222 1.778 2.889 0.000 3.222 3.056 2.167 1.667 2.222 2.278 2.056
b22.500 2.444 2.111 2.500 1.500 1.333 1.833 0.000 2.778 2.611 2.389 2.722 2.722 2.111
b32.278 2.000 2.222 2.167 2.500 1.889 1.500 2.111 0.000 2.500 2.222 3.056 2.444 2.000
b43.056 2.167 1.556 1.333 1.556 1.167 1.000 1.389 1.778 0.000 2.389 2.056 1.556 2.444
c11.222 0.556 0.778 0.444 0.611 0.389 1.222 0.556 0.222 1.222 0.000 1.333 2.333 1.167
c21.111 0.889 0.833 0.667 0.833 0.556 1.111 1.444 1.278 1.000 1.833 0.000 2.389 1.611
c30.611 0.556 0.833 0.556 0.500 0.389 1.611 1.111 0.389 0.278 0.889 1.444 0.000 0.778
c41.389 0.833 1.222 1.111 1.000 0.333 1.000 1.278 1.056 1.444 1.389 1.722 1.167 0.000
Table 8. Normalized initial direct-relationship matrix.
Table 8. Normalized initial direct-relationship matrix.
Criteriaa1a2a3a4a5a6b1b2b3b4c1c2c3c4
a10.000 0.086 0.049 0.067 0.044 0.028 0.035 0.058 0.048 0.088 0.056 0.069 0.040 0.056
a20.056 0.000 0.088 0.070 0.058 0.039 0.051 0.048 0.055 0.051 0.058 0.074 0.056 0.053
a30.088 0.048 0.000 0.076 0.067 0.042 0.026 0.083 0.049 0.055 0.044 0.065 0.051 0.051
a40.069 0.063 0.060 0.000 0.070 0.042 0.033 0.081 0.072 0.067 0.070 0.074 0.076 0.076
a50.065 0.049 0.081 0.070 0.000 0.058 0.037 0.063 0.088 0.055 0.063 0.072 0.058 0.056
a60.074 0.062 0.060 0.074 0.069 0.000 0.049 0.058 0.072 0.042 0.039 0.070 0.070 0.049
b10.099 0.079 0.076 0.070 0.056 0.092 0.000 0.102 0.097 0.069 0.053 0.070 0.072 0.065
b20.079 0.077 0.067 0.079 0.048 0.042 0.058 0.000 0.088 0.083 0.076 0.086 0.086 0.067
b30.072 0.063 0.070 0.069 0.079 0.060 0.048 0.067 0.000 0.079 0.070 0.097 0.077 0.063
b40.097 0.069 0.049 0.042 0.049 0.037 0.032 0.044 0.056 0.000 0.076 0.065 0.049 0.077
c10.039 0.018 0.025 0.014 0.019 0.012 0.039 0.018 0.007 0.039 0.000 0.042 0.074 0.037
c20.035 0.028 0.026 0.021 0.026 0.018 0.035 0.046 0.040 0.032 0.058 0.000 0.076 0.051
c30.019 0.018 0.026 0.018 0.016 0.012 0.051 0.035 0.012 0.009 0.028 0.046 0.000 0.025
c40.044 0.026 0.039 0.035 0.032 0.011 0.032 0.040 0.033 0.046 0.044 0.055 0.037 0.000
Table 9. Total criteria relationship matrix.
Table 9. Total criteria relationship matrix.
Criteriaa1a2a3a4a5a6b1b2b3b4c1c2c3c4
a10.141 0.198 0.169 0.182 0.150 0.110 0.126 0.180 0.165 0.205 0.183 0.216 0.180 0.180
a20.200 0.122 0.208 0.190 0.168 0.124 0.144 0.178 0.177 0.176 0.188 0.226 0.201 0.181
a30.227 0.168 0.126 0.195 0.175 0.126 0.122 0.208 0.173 0.181 0.176 0.219 0.195 0.179
a40.225 0.194 0.195 0.136 0.189 0.135 0.139 0.219 0.205 0.204 0.214 0.243 0.234 0.215
a50.219 0.179 0.212 0.201 0.122 0.148 0.139 0.202 0.217 0.191 0.204 0.238 0.215 0.194
a60.223 0.187 0.190 0.201 0.184 0.092 0.148 0.194 0.201 0.176 0.178 0.232 0.221 0.184
b10.288 0.239 0.241 0.234 0.205 0.202 0.129 0.270 0.259 0.237 0.228 0.277 0.264 0.236
b20.250 0.220 0.215 0.223 0.181 0.145 0.171 0.158 0.232 0.232 0.232 0.270 0.259 0.221
b30.240 0.203 0.215 0.210 0.206 0.158 0.159 0.217 0.148 0.224 0.224 0.275 0.247 0.214
b40.228 0.181 0.167 0.159 0.153 0.117 0.123 0.166 0.171 0.123 0.198 0.211 0.187 0.197
c10.106 0.075 0.083 0.072 0.071 0.053 0.084 0.080 0.066 0.097 0.063 0.114 0.140 0.097
c20.124 0.102 0.104 0.097 0.094 0.071 0.095 0.125 0.115 0.110 0.138 0.098 0.164 0.129
c30.082 0.070 0.080 0.071 0.063 0.051 0.090 0.091 0.067 0.064 0.084 0.111 0.064 0.080
c40.134 0.102 0.115 0.111 0.100 0.065 0.091 0.121 0.110 0.124 0.126 0.150 0.128 0.082
Table 10. Total dimensions relation matrix.
Table 10. Total dimensions relation matrix.
CriteriaABC r j
A0.173 0.178 0.204 0.554
B0.203 0.189 0.234 0.626
C0.087 0.096 0.111 0.294
s j 0.463 0.462 0.548
Table 11. Sum of influences given and received by dimensions and criteria.
Table 11. Sum of influences given and received by dimensions and criteria.
risjri + sjrisj
A0.554 0.463 1.018 0.091
 a10.949 1.235 2.184 –0.286
 a21.011 1.048 2.059 –0.037
 a31.018 1.100 2.118 –0.081
 a41.075 1.105 2.180 –0.030
 a51.081 0.988 2.069 0.094
 a61.077 0.736 1.813 0.342
B0.626 0.462 1.088 0.164
 b10.895 0.582 1.478 0.313
 b20.793 0.812 1.606 –0.019
 b30.749 0.809 1.558 –0.060
 b40.583 0.817 1.399 –0.234
C0.294 0.548 0.842 –0.255
 c10.414 0.412 0.826 0.002
 c20.529 0.473 1.003 0.056
 c30.340 0.496 0.836 –0.156
 c40.487 0.389 0.876 0.098
Table 12. Normalized total criteria relationship matrix.
Table 12. Normalized total criteria relationship matrix.
Criteriaa1a2a3a4a5a6b1b2b3b4c1c2c3c4
a10.149 0.208 0.178 0.191 0.158 0.116 0.186 0.266 0.245 0.303 0.241 0.284 0.238 0.237
a20.198 0.120 0.206 0.188 0.166 0.123 0.213 0.263 0.262 0.261 0.236 0.284 0.252 0.227
a30.223 0.165 0.124 0.192 0.172 0.124 0.178 0.304 0.253 0.265 0.229 0.284 0.254 0.233
a40.209 0.180 0.182 0.127 0.176 0.126 0.181 0.285 0.267 0.266 0.236 0.268 0.258 0.237
a50.203 0.165 0.196 0.186 0.113 0.137 0.186 0.270 0.290 0.255 0.240 0.280 0.252 0.228
a60.207 0.174 0.177 0.187 0.170 0.085 0.206 0.270 0.279 0.245 0.218 0.285 0.271 0.226
b10.204 0.170 0.171 0.166 0.146 0.143 0.144 0.302 0.289 0.265 0.227 0.276 0.263 0.234
b20.203 0.178 0.174 0.181 0.147 0.117 0.216 0.200 0.292 0.292 0.237 0.275 0.263 0.225
b30.195 0.165 0.174 0.171 0.167 0.128 0.212 0.290 0.198 0.300 0.233 0.287 0.257 0.223
b40.227 0.180 0.166 0.158 0.153 0.116 0.210 0.285 0.293 0.211 0.250 0.266 0.235 0.248
c10.231 0.163 0.180 0.156 0.154 0.115 0.256 0.245 0.203 0.296 0.152 0.276 0.337 0.235
c20.209 0.173 0.175 0.164 0.159 0.120 0.214 0.280 0.259 0.247 0.261 0.185 0.310 0.244
c30.197 0.168 0.191 0.170 0.152 0.121 0.288 0.291 0.215 0.206 0.248 0.327 0.189 0.236
c40.213 0.163 0.184 0.177 0.160 0.103 0.204 0.271 0.247 0.278 0.259 0.308 0.263 0.169
Table 13. Normalized total dimensions relationship matrix.
Table 13. Normalized total dimensions relationship matrix.
CriteriaABC
A0.404 0.278 0.318
B0.419 0.26 0.321
C0.388 0.284 0.328
Table 14. Weighted super-matrix.
Table 14. Weighted super-matrix.
Criteriaa1a2a3a4a5a6b1b2b3b4c1c2c3c4
a10.060 0.080 0.090 0.085 0.082 0.084 0.086 0.085 0.082 0.095 0.090 0.081 0.077 0.083
a20.084 0.049 0.067 0.073 0.067 0.070 0.071 0.075 0.069 0.075 0.063 0.067 0.065 0.063
a30.072 0.083 0.050 0.073 0.079 0.071 0.072 0.073 0.073 0.070 0.070 0.068 0.074 0.071
a40.077 0.076 0.078 0.051 0.075 0.075 0.070 0.076 0.072 0.066 0.061 0.064 0.066 0.069
a50.064 0.067 0.069 0.071 0.046 0.069 0.061 0.062 0.070 0.064 0.060 0.062 0.059 0.062
a60.047 0.050 0.050 0.051 0.055 0.035 0.060 0.049 0.054 0.049 0.045 0.046 0.047 0.040
b10.052 0.059 0.049 0.050 0.052 0.057 0.037 0.056 0.055 0.055 0.073 0.061 0.082 0.058
b20.074 0.073 0.084 0.079 0.075 0.075 0.078 0.052 0.075 0.074 0.070 0.079 0.083 0.077
b30.068 0.073 0.070 0.074 0.080 0.077 0.075 0.076 0.051 0.076 0.057 0.073 0.061 0.070
b40.084 0.073 0.074 0.074 0.071 0.068 0.069 0.076 0.078 0.055 0.084 0.070 0.058 0.079
c10.077 0.075 0.073 0.075 0.076 0.069 0.073 0.076 0.075 0.080 0.050 0.086 0.081 0.085
c20.090 0.091 0.090 0.085 0.089 0.091 0.089 0.088 0.092 0.086 0.091 0.061 0.107 0.101
c30.076 0.080 0.081 0.082 0.080 0.086 0.084 0.085 0.083 0.076 0.111 0.102 0.062 0.086
c40.075 0.072 0.074 0.076 0.073 0.072 0.075 0.072 0.072 0.080 0.077 0.080 0.077 0.055
Table 15. Limit of the weighted super-matrix.
Table 15. Limit of the weighted super-matrix.
Criteriaa1a2a3a4a5a6b1b2b3b4c1c2c3c4
a10.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082
a20.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069
a30.071 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071
a40.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069 0.069
a50.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063
a60.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048
b10.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058
b20.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075
b30.070 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.070
b40.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072
c10.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075
c20.089 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.089
c30.084 0.084 0.084 0.084 0.084 0.084 0.084 0.084 0.084 0.084 0.084 0.084 0.084 0.084
c40.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074
Table 16. Weights of each dimension, criterion, and weight rank.
Table 16. Weights of each dimension, criterion, and weight rank.
DimensionCriterionDimension Criterion
WeightWeight rankWeightWeight rank
Aa10.40310.082 3
a2 0.069 11
a3 0.071 8
a4 0.069 10
a5 0.063 12
a6 0.049 14
Bb10.27530.058 13
b2 0.075 5
b3 0.070 9
b4 0.072 7
Cc10.32220.075 4
c2 0.089 1
c3 0.084 2
c4 0.074 6
Table 17. Relationship matrix of organizational performance and project risk.
Table 17. Relationship matrix of organizational performance and project risk.
CriterionRelative Weighta1a2a3a4a5a6
c10.2340.1060.0750.0830.0720.0710.053
c2 0.2770.1240.1020.1040.0970.0940.071
c30.2600.0820.0700.0800.0710.0630.051
c40.2290.1340.1020.1150.1110.1000.065
Added weight 0.1110.0880.0950.0870.0820.060
Relative importance 0.2120.1670.1820.1670.1570.115
Table 18. Relationship matrix of organizational performance and project management.
Table 18. Relationship matrix of organizational performance and project management.
CriterionRelative Weightb1b2b3b4
c1 0.2340.0840.0800.0660.097
c20.2770.0950.1250.1150.110
c30.2600.0900.0910.0670.064
c40.2290.0910.1210.1100.124
Added weight0.0900.1050.0900.098
Relative importance0.2360.2730.2350.256
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