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Article

Copyright Protection Based on Zero Watermarking and Blockchain for Vector Maps

by 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3,*, 1,2,3 and 1,2,3
1
Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment, Nanjing Normal Universit, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023, China
2
State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution (Jiangsu Province), Nanjing 210023, China
3
Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050294
Received: 20 March 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 1 May 2021 / Published: 3 May 2021
Zero watermarking does not alter the original information contained in vector map data and provides perfect imperceptibility. The use of zero watermarking for data copyright protection has become a significant trend in digital watermarking research. However, zero watermarking encounters tremendous obstacles to its development and application because of its requirement to store copyright information with a third party and its difficulty in confirming copyright ownership. Aiming at the shortcomings of the existing zero watermarking technology, this paper proposes a new zero watermarking construction method based on the angular features of vector data that store the zero watermarking and copyright information on the blockchain after an XOR operation. When the watermark is being extracted, the copyright information can be extracted with the XOR operation to obtain the information stored on the blockchain. Experimental results show that the combination of zero watermarking and blockchain proposed in this paper gives full play to the advantages of the two technologies and protects the copyright of data in a lossless fashion. Compared with the traditional zero watermarking algorithms, the proposed zero watermarking algorithm exhibits stronger robustness. Moreover, the proposed data copyright protection framework with a combination of zero watermarking and blockchain can also be applied to other data types, such as images, audio, video, and remote sensing images. View Full-Text
Keywords: zero watermarking; vector data; blockchain; copyright protection; Douglas–Peucker algorithm zero watermarking; vector data; blockchain; copyright protection; Douglas–Peucker algorithm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ren, N.; Zhao, Y.; Zhu, C.; Zhou, Q.; Xu, D. Copyright Protection Based on Zero Watermarking and Blockchain for Vector Maps. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 294. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050294

AMA Style

Ren N, Zhao Y, Zhu C, Zhou Q, Xu D. Copyright Protection Based on Zero Watermarking and Blockchain for Vector Maps. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2021; 10(5):294. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050294

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ren, Na, Yazhou Zhao, Changqing Zhu, Qifei Zhou, and Dingjie Xu. 2021. "Copyright Protection Based on Zero Watermarking and Blockchain for Vector Maps" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10, no. 5: 294. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050294

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