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Review

Utilization of Image, LiDAR and Gamma-Ray Information to Improve Environmental Sustainability of Cut-to-Length Wood Harvesting Operations in Peatlands: A Management Systems Perspective

1
Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland
2
Stora Enso, Forest Division, Wood Supply Finland, P.O. Box 309, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Waldemar Kociuba and Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050273
Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 15 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 23 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Subsurface Mapping)
Forest industry corporations use quality management systems in their wood procurement operations. Spatial quality data are used to improve the quality of wood harvesting and to achieve environmental sustainability. Some studies have proposed new management systems based on LiDAR. The main aim of this study was to investigate how efficiently planning systems can select areas for wood harvesting a priori with respect to avoiding harvesting damage caused by forest machinery. A literature review revealed the possibility of using GISs, and case studies showed the criteria required to predict the required quality levels. Terrestrial LiDAR can be utilized in authorities’ quality control systems, but it is inefficient for preplanning without terrestrial gamma-ray data collection. Airborne LiDAR and gamma-ray information about forest soils can only be used for planning larger regions at the forest level because the information includes too much uncertainty to allow it to be used for planning in small-sized areas before wood harvesting operations involving wood procurement. In addition, airborne LiDAR is not accurate enough, even at the forest level, for the planning of wood procurement systems because wood harvesting remains challenging without field measurements. Therefore, there is a need for the use of manual ground-penetrating radar for determining the peat layer thickness and the depth to the groundwater table. View Full-Text
Keywords: GIS; laser scanning; photographing; sustainability; forest industry; tree damage; soil rutting; wood harvesting quality GIS; laser scanning; photographing; sustainability; forest industry; tree damage; soil rutting; wood harvesting quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Palander, T.; Kärhä, K. Utilization of Image, LiDAR and Gamma-Ray Information to Improve Environmental Sustainability of Cut-to-Length Wood Harvesting Operations in Peatlands: A Management Systems Perspective. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 273. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050273

AMA Style

Palander T, Kärhä K. Utilization of Image, LiDAR and Gamma-Ray Information to Improve Environmental Sustainability of Cut-to-Length Wood Harvesting Operations in Peatlands: A Management Systems Perspective. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2021; 10(5):273. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050273

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palander, Teijo, and Kalle Kärhä. 2021. "Utilization of Image, LiDAR and Gamma-Ray Information to Improve Environmental Sustainability of Cut-to-Length Wood Harvesting Operations in Peatlands: A Management Systems Perspective" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10, no. 5: 273. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050273

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