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Article

Paradigm of Geological Mapping of the Adıyaman Fault Zone of Eastern Turkey Using Landsat 8 Remotely Sensed Data Coupled with PCA, ICA, and MNFA Techniques

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Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34467, Turkey
2
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11651, Egypt
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Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Geomatics, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34467, Turkey
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Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Cairo 44519, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Panagiotis Partsinevelos and Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(6), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10060368
Received: 12 March 2021 / Revised: 10 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 30 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Subsurface Mapping)
A principal and independent component analysis (PCA and ICA) and a minimum noise fraction analysis (MNFA) were applied in this study to Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images along the Adıyaman fault zone in Eastern Turkey. These analyses indicated that the lithologic units, fault patterns, and the morphological and structural features can be mapped highly accurately by using spectral-matching techniques in regions where rocks are well exposed. An inspection of all possible band combinations indicated that the PCA 134 and 231 and the ICA 132 band combinations give the best false color composite images for identifying the lithological units and contacts. The findings of the MNFA band combinations show that the MNFA 521 band combination also is robust for discriminating the lithological units, particularly Quaternary clastic units (colluvium/alluvium). MNFA band 1 alone provides the best image for tracing the tectonic and structural elements in the study area. The new up-to-date lithologic map of the Adıyaman fault zone we produced upon the interpretation of the processed OLI images reveals several river channels that are offset and beheaded by the Adıyaman fault, which verifies its Quaternary activity. This study demonstrated that, when used with the OLI data, the PCA, ICA, and MNFA are very powerful for lithological and structural mapping in actively deforming tectonic zones and hence can be applied to other regions elsewhere in the world where the climate is arid to semiarid, and the vegetation cover is scarce. View Full-Text
Keywords: principal and independent component analysis; minimum noise fraction analysis; lithologic and tectonic mapping; Adıyaman fault zone; Eastern Turkey principal and independent component analysis; minimum noise fraction analysis; lithologic and tectonic mapping; Adıyaman fault zone; Eastern Turkey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khalifa, A.; Bashir, B.; Çakir, Z.; Kaya, Ş.; Alsalman, A.; Henaish, A. Paradigm of Geological Mapping of the Adıyaman Fault Zone of Eastern Turkey Using Landsat 8 Remotely Sensed Data Coupled with PCA, ICA, and MNFA Techniques. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 368. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10060368

AMA Style

Khalifa A, Bashir B, Çakir Z, Kaya Ş, Alsalman A, Henaish A. Paradigm of Geological Mapping of the Adıyaman Fault Zone of Eastern Turkey Using Landsat 8 Remotely Sensed Data Coupled with PCA, ICA, and MNFA Techniques. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2021; 10(6):368. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10060368

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khalifa, Abdelrahman, Bashar Bashir, Ziyadin Çakir, Şinasi Kaya, Abdullah Alsalman, and Ahmed Henaish. 2021. "Paradigm of Geological Mapping of the Adıyaman Fault Zone of Eastern Turkey Using Landsat 8 Remotely Sensed Data Coupled with PCA, ICA, and MNFA Techniques" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10, no. 6: 368. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10060368

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