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Open AccessArticle

Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Strains Significantly Impact Shiraz Tannin and Polysaccharide Composition with Implications for Wine Colour and Astringency

1
The Australian Wine Research Institute, Hartley Grove, Urrbrae, Adelaide, SA 5064, Australia
2
Wine Australia, Industry House, Corner Hackney and Botanic Roads, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
3
Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, 232B Wiegand Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(9), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9090466
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 21 August 2019 / Accepted: 3 September 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemistry of Wine and Beer)
To gain knowledge on the role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (and their hybrids) on wine sensory properties, 10 commercially available yeast strains were selected on the basis of their widespread usage and/or novel properties and used to produce Shiraz wines. Significant differences were evident post-alcoholic fermentation and after 24 months of ageing with regards to the number of wine compositional variables, in particular the concentration of tannin and polysaccharide. Strain L2323 is known for its pectinolytic activity and yielded the highest concentration of both yeast- and grape-derived polysaccharides. Wines made with the mannoprotein-producing strain Uvaferm HPS (high levels of polysaccharides) did not have elevated concentrations of yeast-derived polysaccharides, despite this observation being made for corresponding model fermentations, suggesting that mannoprotein production or retention might be limited by the wine matrix. Wine tannin concentration showed a high level of variability between strains, with L2323 having the highest, and AWRI1503 the lowest concentration. Sensory analysis of the wines after 24 months ageing revealed significant differences between the yeast strains, but only the attributes opacity (visual colour) and astringency could be predicted by partial least squares regression using the wine compositional data. Notably, the astringency attribute was associated with higher concentrations of both tannin and polysaccharide, contrary to reports in the literature which suggested that polysaccharide exerts a moderating effect on astringency. The results confirm previous reports demonstrating that the choice of yeast strain represents an opportunity to shape wine style outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: proanthocyanidin; anthocyanin; pectolytic; pectin; mannoprotein proanthocyanidin; anthocyanin; pectolytic; pectin; mannoprotein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bindon, K.A.; Kassara, S.; Solomon, M.; Bartel, C.; Smith, P.A.; Barker, A.; Curtin, C. Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Strains Significantly Impact Shiraz Tannin and Polysaccharide Composition with Implications for Wine Colour and Astringency. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 466.

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