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Open AccessArticle

Evaluating Iso-Mukaadial Acetate and Ursolic Acid Acetate as Plasmodium falciparum Hypoxanthine-Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitors

1
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein Campus, Johannesburg 2028, South Africa
2
Discipline of Biochemistry, School of Life Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville 4000, South Africa
3
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120861
Received: 3 October 2019 / Revised: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 11 December 2019
To date, Plasmodium falciparum is one of the most lethal strains of the malaria parasite. P. falciparum lacks the required enzymes to create its own purines via the de novo pathway, thereby making Plasmodium falciparum hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (PfHGXPT) a crucial enzyme in the malaria life cycle. Recently, studies have described iso-mukaadial acetate and ursolic acid acetate as promising antimalarials. However, the mode of action is still unknown, thus, the current study sought to investigate the selective inhibitory and binding actions of iso-mukaadial acetate and ursolic acid acetate against recombinant PfHGXPT using in-silico and experimental approaches. Recombinant PfHGXPT protein was expressed using E. coli BL21 cells and homogeneously purified by affinity chromatography. Experimentally, iso-mukaadial acetate and ursolic acid acetate, respectively, demonstrated direct inhibitory activity towards PfHGXPT in a dose-dependent manner. The binding affinity of iso-mukaadial acetate and ursolic acid acetate on the PfHGXPT dissociation constant (KD), where it was found that 0.0833 µM and 2.8396 µM, respectively, are indicative of strong binding. The mode of action for the observed antimalarial activity was further established by a molecular docking study. The molecular docking and dynamics simulations show specific interactions and high affinity within the binding pocket of Plasmodium falciparum and human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferases. The predicted in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion/toxicity (ADME/T) properties predicted that the iso-mukaadial acetate ligand may follow the criteria for orally active drugs. The theoretical calculation derived from ADME, molecular docking and dynamics provide in-depth information into the structural basis, specific bonding and non-bonding interactions governing the inhibition of malarial. Taken together, these findings provide a basis for the recommendation of iso-mukaadial acetate and ursolic acid acetate as high-affinity ligands and drug candidates against PfHGXPT. View Full-Text
Keywords: iso-mukaadial acetate; ursolic acid acetate; PfHGXPT; Plasmodium falciparum iso-mukaadial acetate; ursolic acid acetate; PfHGXPT; Plasmodium falciparum
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MDPI and ACS Style

Opoku, F.; Govender, P.P.; Pooe, O.J.; Simelane, M.B.C. Evaluating Iso-Mukaadial Acetate and Ursolic Acid Acetate as Plasmodium falciparum Hypoxanthine-Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitors. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 861. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120861

AMA Style

Opoku F, Govender PP, Pooe OJ, Simelane MBC. Evaluating Iso-Mukaadial Acetate and Ursolic Acid Acetate as Plasmodium falciparum Hypoxanthine-Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitors. Biomolecules. 2019; 9(12):861. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120861

Chicago/Turabian Style

Opoku, Francis; Govender, Penny P.; Pooe, Ofentse J.; Simelane, Mthokozisi B.C. 2019. "Evaluating Iso-Mukaadial Acetate and Ursolic Acid Acetate as Plasmodium falciparum Hypoxanthine-Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitors" Biomolecules 9, no. 12: 861. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120861

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