Allogeneic liver transplantation is still deemed the gold standard solution for end-stage organ failure; however, donor organ shortages have led to extended waiting lists for organ transplants. In order to overcome the lack of donors, the development of new therapeutic options is mandatory. In the last several years, organ bioengineering has been extensively explored to provide transplantable tissues or whole organs with the final goal of creating a three-dimensional growth microenvironment mimicking the native structure. It has been frequently reported that an extracellular matrix-based scaffold offers a structural support and important biological molecules that could help cellular proliferation during the recellularization process. The aim of the present review is to underline the recent developments in cell-on-scaffold technology for liver bioengineering, taking into account: (1) biological and synthetic scaffolds; (2) animal and human tissue decellularization; (3) scaffold recellularization; (4) 3D bioprinting; and (5) organoid technology. Future possible clinical applications in regenerative medicine for liver tissue engineering and for drug testing were underlined and dissected.
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