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Biomolecules 2019, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9010019

Annatto (Bixa orellana) δ-TCT Supplementation Protection against Embryonic Malformations through Alterations in PI3K/Akt-Cyclin D1 Pathway

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Puncak Alam Campus, Selangor 42300, Malaysia
2
Maternofetal and Embryo Research Group (MatE), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Selangor 40450, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Sg. Buloh Campus, Selangor 47000, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract

Protective action by annatto-derived delta-tocotrienol (δ-TCT) and soy-derived alpha-tocopherol (α-TOC) through the regulation of the PI3K/Akt-cyclin D1 pathway against nicotine-induced DNA damage is the focus of the present study. Nicotine, which has been widely reported to have numerous adverse effects on the reproductive system, was used as a reproductive toxicant. 48 female balb/c mice (6–8 weeks) (23–25 g) were randomly divided into eight groups (Grp.1–Grp.8; n = 6) and treated with either nicotine or/and annatto δ-TCT/soy α-TOC for seven consecutive days. On Day 8, the females were superovulated and mated before euthanization for embryo collection (46 h post-coitum). Fifty 2-cell embryos from each group were used in gene expression analysis using Affymetrix QuantiGene Plex2.0 assay. Findings indicated that nicotine (Grp.2) significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the number of produced 2-cell embryos compared to the control (Grp.1). Intervention with mixed annatto δ-TCT (Grp.3) and pure annatto δ-TCT (Grp.4) significantly increased the number of produced 2-cell embryos by 127% and 79%, respectively compared to Grp.2, but these were lower than Grp.1. Concurrent treatment with soy α-TOC (Grp.5) decreased embryo production by 7%. Supplementations with δ-TCT and α-TOC alone (Grp.6-Grp.8) significantly increased (p < 0.05) the number of produced 2-cell embryos by 50%, 36%, and 41%, respectively, compared to control (Grp.1). These results were found to be associated with alterations in the PI3K/Akt-Cyclin D1 genes expressions, indicating the inhibitory effects of annatto δ-TCT and soy α-TOC against nicotinic embryonic damage. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt in studying the benefits of annatto δ-TCT on murine preimplantation 2-cell embryos. View Full-Text
Keywords: murine preimplantation embryos; vitamin E; annatto delta-tocotrienol; tocopherols; reproductive toxicant; nicotine murine preimplantation embryos; vitamin E; annatto delta-tocotrienol; tocopherols; reproductive toxicant; nicotine
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Mohd Mutalip, S.S.; Rajikin, M.H.; Ab Rahim, S.; Mohamed Noor Khan, N.-A. Annatto (Bixa orellana) δ-TCT Supplementation Protection against Embryonic Malformations through Alterations in PI3K/Akt-Cyclin D1 Pathway. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 19.

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